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A tone ending with electrical shock was periodically presented to pigeons while they pecked a key for food. Pairs of birds were run simultaneously under a yoked program which insured that both birds received the same number and temporal distribution of shocks. For one of the birds, shock was always initiated by a peck; for the other, shock was unavoidable.(More)
Three years ago a tone ending in unavoidable electrical shock was periodically presented to pigeons while they pecked a key for food. When pecking was disrupted by tone, shock was disconnected and the training tone as well as tones of different frequencies were presented. At first, all tones caused a reduction in the rate of pecking, but as testing(More)
Six rats were exposed to a sequence of gunshot-like acoustical bursts during silence, during steady noise, and during pulsed noise. Assessment of their startle reactions to the bursts revealed that a background of steady noise enhanced the response, whereas a background of pulsed noise produced suppression of response. It is hypothesized that pulsed noise(More)