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The geometry and dimensions of branched structures such as blood vessels or airways are important factors in determining the efficiency of physiological processes. It has been shown that fractal trees can be space filling and can ensure minimal dissipation. The bronchial tree of most mammalian lungs is a good example of an efficient distribution system with(More)
It has recently been shown that the acinus can have a reduced efficiency due to a "screening effect" governed by the ratio of oxygen diffusivity to membrane permeability, the gas flow velocity, as well as the size and configuration of the acinus. We present here a top to bottom calculation of the functioning of a machine acinus at exercise that takes this(More)
The transfer of oxygen from air to blood in the lung involves three processes: ventilation through the airways, diffusion of oxygen in the air phase to the alveolar surface, and finally diffusion through tissue into the capillary blood. The latter two steps occur in the acinus, where the alveolar gas-exchange surface is arranged along the last few(More)
Peripheral airways combine branched tubes for ventilation with the gas exchanging alveoli in the pulmonary acini, defined as the complex of airways supplied by one first order respiratory or transitional bronchiole. In this part, the replenishment of oxygen at the alveolar surface occurs by a combination of convective air flow with diffusion of oxygen in(More)
The present study is concerned with the properties of 2D shallow cavities having an irregular boundary. The eigenmodes are calculated numerically on various examples, and it is shown first that, whatever the shape and characteristic sizes of the boundary, irregularity always induces an increase of localized eigenmodes and a global decrease of the existence(More)
An exact "branch by branch" calculation of the diffusional flux is proposed for partially absorbed random walks on arbitrary tree structures. In the particular case of symmetric trees, an explicit analytical expression is found which is valid whatever the size of the tree. Its application to the respiratory phenomena in pulmonary acini gives an analytical(More)
The human tracheobronchial tree is a complex branched distribution system in charge of renewing the air inside the acini, which are the gas exchange units. We present here a systematic geometrical model of this system described as a self-similar assembly of rigid pipes. It includes the specific geometry of the upper bronchial tree and a self-similar(More)
Gas exchange at the acinar level involves several physico-chemical phenomena within a complex geometry. A gas transport model, which takes into account both the diffusion into the acinus and the diffusion across the alveolar membrane, is used to understand gas mixing in realistic systems. It is first shown that the behaviour of the system, computed on model(More)
In the mammalian lung acini, O(2) diffuses into quasi-static air toward the alveolar membrane, where the gas exchange with blood takes place. The O(2) flux is then influenced by the O(2) diffusivity, the membrane permeability, and the acinus geometric complexity. This phenomenon has been recently studied in an abstract geometric model of the acinus, the(More)
We showed recently that the high-salt transition of poly[d(G-C)]. poly[d(G-C)] between B-DNA and Z-DNA (at [NaCl] = 2.25 M or [MgCl(2)] = 0.7 M) can be ascribed to the lesser electrostatic free energy of the B form, due to better immersion of the phosphates in the solution. This property was incorporated in cylindrical DNA models that were analyzed by(More)