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Mammalian sex determination is governed by the presence of the sex determining region Y gene (SRY) on the Y chromosome. Familial cases of SRY-negative XX sex reversal are rare in humans, often hampering the discovery of new sex-determining genes. The mouse model is also insufficient to correctly apprehend the sex-determination cascade, as the human pathway(More)
A genome scan was previously performed and pointed to chromosome 6q21 as a candidate region for autism. This region contains the glutamate receptor 6 (GluR6 or GRIK2) gene, a functional candidate for the syndrome. Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and is directly involved in cognitive functions such as memory and learning.(More)
Mutations in FOXL2, a forkhead transcription factor gene, have recently been shown to cause blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES) types I and II, a rare genetic disorder. In BPES type I a complex eyelid malformation is associated with premature ovarian failure (POF), whereas in BPES type II the eyelid defect occurs as an isolated(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Mutations in bone morphogenic protein 15 (BMP15) and growth/differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) lead to altered fertility in animal models. In the human, a heterozygous point mutation of BMP15 has been associated with premature ovarian failure (POF). SUBJECT AND METHODS We have directly sequenced both genes in a cohort of 203 POF(More)
Microdeletions of the long arm of the human Y chromosome are associated with spermatogenic failure and have been used to define three regions of Yq (AZFa, AZFb, and AZFc) that are recurrently deleted in infertile males. In a blind study we screened 131 infertile males (46 idiopathic and 85 nonidiopathic) for Y chromosome microdeletions. Nineteen percent of(More)
The Forkhead transcription factor FOXL2 plays a crucial role in ovarian development and maintenance. In humans, its mutations lead to craniofacial abnormalities, isolated or associated with ovarian dysfunction. Using a combinatorial approach, we identified and characterized a FoxL2 response element (FLRE) and showed that it is highly specific and that it(More)
OBJECTIVE The goal of this study was to determine whether mutations of meiotic genes, such as disrupted meiotic cDNA (DMC1), MutS homolog (MSH4), MSH5, and S. cerevisiae homolog (SPO11), were associated with premature ovarian failure (POF). DESIGN Case-control study. METHODS Blood sampling, karyotype, hormonal dosage, ultrasound, and ovarian biopsy were(More)
A clinically significant proportion of couples experience difficulty in conceiving a child. In about half of these cases male infertility is the cause and often genetic factors are involved. Despite advances in clinical diagnostics ∼50% of male infertility cases remain idiopathic. Based on this, further analysis of infertile males is required to identify(More)