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Interspecific or intergeneric hybridization, followed by chromosome doubling, can lead to the formation of new allopolyploid species. Recent studies indicate that allopolyploid formation is associated with genetic and epigenetic changes, although little is known about the type of changes that occur, how rapidly they occur, and the type of sequences(More)
We analyzed the events that affect gene structure and expression in the early stages of allopolyploidy in wheat. The transcriptome response was studied by analyzing 3072 transcripts in the first generation of a synthetic allotetraploid (genome S(l)S(l)A(m)A(m)), which resembles tetraploid wheat (genome BBAA), and in its two diploid progenitors Aegilops(More)
To better understand genetic events that accompany allopolyploid formation, we studied the rate and time of elimination of eight DNA sequences in F1 hybrids and newly formed allopolyploids of Aegilops and TRITICUM: In total, 35 interspecific and intergeneric F1 hybrids and 22 derived allopolyploids were analyzed and compared with their direct parental(More)
Retrotransposons are a principal component of most eukaryotic genomes, representing roughly 40% of the human genome and 50-80% of some grass genomes. They are usually transcriptionally silent but can be activated under certain stresses. Despite their considerable contribution to genome structure, their impact on the expression of adjacent genes is not well(More)
An Israeli accession (TTD140) of wild emmer, Triticum turgidum var. dicoccoides, was found resistant to several races of powdery mildew. Inoculation of the chromosome-arm substitution lines (CASLs) of TTD140, in the background of the Israeli common wheat cultivar ‘Bethlehem’ (BL), with five isolates of powdery mildew revealed that only the line carrying the(More)
To study genome evolution in allopolyploid plants, we analyzed polyploid wheats and their diploid progenitors for the occurrence of 16 low-copy chromosome- or genome-specific sequences isolated from hexaploid wheat. Based on their occurrence in the diploid species, we classified the sequences into two groups: group I, found in only one of the three diploid(More)
We recently reported that formation of allopolyploid wheat was accompanied by rapid nonrandom changes in low-copy noncoding DNA sequences. In this report we show that following allopolyploidization, changes also occurred in coding sequences. Genomic DNA of nine different newly synthesized amphiploids of different ploidy levels and their parental lines was(More)
Recent studies have shown that allopolyploidy accelerates genome evolution in wheat in two ways: (1) allopolyploidization triggers rapid genome changes (revolutionary changes) through the instantaneous generation of a variety of cardinal genetic and epigenetic alterations, and (2) the allopolyploid condition facilitates sporadic genomic changes during the(More)
Chromosomal arrangement in the interphase nucleus has two main aspects: (1) arrangement of chromosomes with respect to nuclear polarity and to other nuclear components, and (2) arrangement of chromosomes with respect to one another. The latter aspect consists of two main types of spatial relationships; (a) relationships between different members of one(More)
Speciation via interspecific or intergeneric hybridization and polyploidization triggers genomic responses involving genetic and epigenetic alterations. Such modifications may be induced by small RNAs, which affect key cellular processes, including gene expression, chromatin structure, cytosine methylation and transposable element (TE) activity. To date,(More)