M Farage-Elawar

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The effects of desbromoleptophos, fenitrothion, and fenthion on brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE), brain neurotoxic esterase (NTE), and walking were investigated in immature chicks, below the age of organophosphorus ester-induced delayed neurotoxicity (OPIDN). Seventy-five milligrams per kilogram of the delayed neurotoxicant desbromoleptophos (DBL) and 100(More)
Certain biochemical and behavioral effects of carbaryl were investigated in chicks. Six-day-old birds received 100 mg/kg body weight (bw) per day carbaryl for 7 d. Brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and neuropathy target esterase (NTE) were measured at 24 h after the first, third, and fifth dose during the 1 wk of treatment, and then at d 1, 3, 6, 10, 20,(More)
The embryonic chick has long been a model for developmental biology and has often been recommended as a model system in developmental toxicology. More recently, several investigators have shown that the chick embryo also provides a good model for identifying the neurotoxic effects of environmental pollutants, especially cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides.(More)
Recent evidence has shown that exposure to pesticides can lead to long-term neurophysiological and functional deficits. We have demonstrated previously that locomotion in chicks exposed to some organophosphates and carbamates could be altered persistently without concomitant central or peripheral esterase inhibition. Furthermore, histopathology of the(More)
The relationship among inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), inhibition of neuropathy target enzyme (NTE), and developmental toxicity of the organophosphorus ester desbromoleptophos (DBL) was evaluated in chicks exposed on day 3 or day 15 of incubation or 10 days posthatching. DBL induced prolonged inhibition of AChE and NTE when administered either(More)
The effects of multiple doses of desbromoleptophos, fenitrothion, and pure fenthion on brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE), brain neurotoxic esterase (NTE), and walking were investigated in immature chicks, below the age of sensitivity to organophosphorus ester-induced delayed neurotoxicity (OPIDN). Ten milligrams per kilogram per day of delayed neurotoxicant(More)
Carbaryl and aldicarb, two carbamate pesticides used extensively throughout the United States, are known to act as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. We have demonstrated previously that exposure to carbaryl and aldicarb in young chicks caused persistent locomotion alterations with no correlation to esterase inhibition. In this study, we investigated the(More)
Previous studies have demonstrated that gait is affected in chicks exposed to organophosphorus esters (OPs) that induce delayed neurotoxicity (OPIDN) in adult hens. To investigate the developmental relationship between such functional deficits and OPIDN, chicks were exposed to 3 OPs with different OPIDN potential. Desbromoleptophos (DBL) induces OPIDN in(More)
A variety of carbamates have been developed since the 1960s for use as broad-spectrum insecticides. An easy and inexpensive in vitro assay using chick-embryo derived cells was examined for its capability to screen and test the toxicity of these compounds. Chick embryo brain and limb bud cultures were treated with different concentrations of either carbaryl(More)
Enzyme and locomotion changes due to carbamate treatment were investigated during and following oral administration of aldicarb (0.2 mg/kg body weight/day x 7) to six-day-old chicks. Brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and neurotoxic esterase (NTE) were measured at three times during the one week of treatment, and again on days 1, 3, 6, 10, 20, 30 and 40(More)
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