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Chemical and physical transformations of solid food begin in the mouth, but the oral phase of digestion has rarely been studied. In the present study, twelve healthy volunteers masticated mouthfuls of either bread or spaghetti for a physiologically-determined time, and the levels of particle degradation and starch digestion before swallowing were compared(More)
Mastication, the first step in food digestion, results in the breakdown of solid food and its lubrication with saliva. Although the rate and extent of starch digestion are closely dependent on the way food is chewed, this factor has not been adequately considered in the preparation of food for in vitro digestion experiments. The purpose of this study was to(More)
The release of nutrients from solid food depends on the physical and chemical characteristics of substrates, and on dynamic physiological events including pH, gastric emptying and enzymatic secretion. Our laboratory has developed an in vitro digestive system mimicking mouth and stomach processes to determine physical and chemical changes of bread during(More)
In fleshy fruits, the variability of cell morphology at the fruit scale is largely unknown. It presents both a huge variability and a high level of organization. Better knowledge of cell morphology heterogeneity within the fruit is necessary to understand fruit development, to model fruit mechanical behaviour, or to investigate variations of(More)
This paper deals with the characterization of layered structures sampled with respect to a reference surface. A scheme where thick slabs are sampled perpendicular to a curved surface is considered, resulting in a non-uniform sampling of the structure. We present an estimation procedure based on the Horvitz-Thompson principle. An approximation of the(More)
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