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Recently, it has been demonstrated that the fat-derived protein adiponectin is an important insulin-sensitizing adipocytokine which is downregulated in insulin resistance and obesity and replenishment of which in adiponectin-deficient states improves insulin sensitivity. To clarify the regulation of adiponectin gene expression, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were(More)
BACKGROUND With the advent of microarray technology, increasing numbers of marker genes are proposed to distinguish benign and malignant thyroid lesions. However, most markers await confirmation through independent studies. In this paper, we re-evaluate the diagnostic potential of 10 proposed candidate genes in benign and malignant thyroid pathologies in a(More)
The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge of the etiology of euthyroid and toxic multinodular goiter (MNG) with respect to the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and molecular pathology. In reconstructing the line of events from early thyroid hyperplasia to MNG we will argue the predominant neoplastic character of nodular structures,(More)
Molecular events that lead to the development of autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTNs) are somatic mutations of the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) in approximately 60% of the nodules and less frequently, somatic mutations in the Gsalpha protein. However, AFTNs without known mutations indicate that other causes remain to be identified. Moreover, the(More)
BACKGROUND The diagnostic limitations of thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA), such as the indeterminate category, can be partially overcome by molecular analyses. However, until now, rearrangements have only been detected in fresh FNA material and the number of follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) was rather low in previous studies. We aimed at(More)
Autonomously functioning thyroid nodules are characterized by an increased proliferation and function, which is predominantly caused by constitutively activating TSH receptor mutations leading to an activation of cAMP. In contrast to autonomously functioning thyroid nodules, cold thyroid nodules are functionally inactive and less differentiated. Their(More)
CONTEXT Histologic examination of thyroid nodules is the current standard to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid epithelial tumors and to classify histologic subtypes. This review analyzes the problems in histological differential diagnosis as well as contradictions between histology and molecular data and describes possibilities to combine histology(More)
MOTIVATION The power of microarray analyses to detect differential gene expression strongly depends on the statistical and bioinformatical approaches used for data analysis. Moreover, the simultaneous testing of tens of thousands of genes for differential expression raises the 'multiple testing problem', increasing the probability of obtaining false(More)
Distinguishing between follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) and follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) constitutes a long-standing diagnostic problem resulting in equivocal histopathological diagnoses. There is therefore a need for additional molecular markers. To identify molecular differences between FTC and FTA, we analyzed the gene expression microarray data of 52(More)
Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is widely recommended as an important tool for pre-operative identification of malignancy in patients with nodular thyroid disease. To assess the diagnostic contribution of FNAC and the potential of quantitative mRNA analysis in fine needle aspirates in daily practice, we conducted a prospective study in thyroid(More)