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The mammalian cerebral cortex is characterized by complex patterns of anatomical and functional areas that differ markedly between species, but the molecular basis for this functional subdivision is largely unknown. Here, we show that mutations in GPR56, which encodes an orphan G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) with a large extracellular domain, cause a(More)
In contrast to cyclin D1 nulls (cD1-/-), mice without cyclin D2 (cD2-/-) lack cerebellar stellate interneurons; the reason for this is unknown. In the present study in cortex, we found a disproportionate loss of parvalbumin (PV) interneurons in cD2-/- mice. This selective reduction in PV subtypes was associated with reduced frequency of GABA-mediated(More)
Lis1 gene defects impair neuronal migration, causing the severe human brain malformation lissencephaly. Although much is known about its interactions with microtubules, microtubule-binding proteins such as CLIP-170, and with the dynein motor complex, the response of Lis1 to neuronal motility signals has not been elucidated. Lis1 deficiency is associated(More)
Expression of cyclins D1 (cD1) and D2 (cD2) in ventricular zone and subventricular zone (SVZ), respectively, suggests that a switch to cD2 could be a requisite step in the generation of cortical intermediate progenitor cells (IPCs). However, direct evidence is lacking. Here, cD1 or cD2 was seen to colabel subsets of Pax6-expressing radial glial cells(More)
We used mice deficient in neuronal nitric oxide (NO) synthase (nNOS) to specifically investigate the role of neuronal NO in the increase of cerebellar blood flow (BFcrb) produced by neural activation. Crus II, a region of the cerebellar cortex that receives trigeminal sensory afferents, was activated by low-intensity stimulation of the upper lip (5-25 V,(More)
G1-phase cyclin D1 (cD1) expression has been documented in post-mitotic neurons undergoing apoptosis, leading others to propose that attempted cell cycle re-entry may induce cell death. Here, cD1 immunoreactivity was found in a subpopulation of healthy excitatory neurons throughout the brain. Most striking was the selective cD1 expression in hippocampal(More)
Brain malformations are individually rare but collectively common causes of developmental disabilities. Many forms of malformation occur sporadically and are associated with reduced reproductive fitness, pointing to a causative role for de novo mutations. Here, we report a study of Baraitser-Winter syndrome, a well-defined disorder characterized by distinct(More)
Lissencephaly is a severe brain malformation caused by impaired neuronal migration. Lis1, a causative gene, functions in an evolutionarily conserved nuclear translocation pathway regulating dynein motor and microtubule dynamics. Whereas microtubule contributions to neuronal motility are incompletely understood, the actin cytoskeleton is essential for(More)
Regulation of neural proliferation is an essential component of brain formation and is driven by both intrinsic cell cycle and extrinsic growth and trophic molecules. Among the cell cycle proteins, understanding of the relative roles of the G1-phase active cyclins D2 and D1 (cD2 and cD1) has been hampered by lack of data regarding their expression patterns.(More)
The transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) is involved in the molecular mechanisms of inflammation and apoptosis, processes that contribute to ischemic brain injury. In this study, the induction of IRF-1 in response to cerebral ischemia and its role in ischemic brain injury were investigated. IRF-1 gene expression was markedly(More)