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Vertebrate limbs develop in a temporal proximodistal sequence, with proximal regions specified and generated earlier than distal ones. Whereas considerable information is available on the mechanisms promoting limb growth, those involved in determining the proximodistal identity of limb parts remain largely unknown. We show here that retinoic acid (RA) is an(More)
Pitx2, a member of the bicoid-related family of homeobox-containing genes, is asymmetrically expressed in the left lateral plate mesoderm and derived tissues during chick and mouse development. Modifications of Pitx2 pattern of expression in the iv mouse mutation correlate with the situs alterations characteristic of the mutation. Misexpression experiments(More)
Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (BMP-2) and Osteogenic Protein 1 (OP-1, also termed BMP-7) are members of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily. In the present study, we have analyzed the effects of administering them locally at different stages and locations of the chick limb bud using heparin beads as carriers. Our results show that these BMPs are(More)
dHAND is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor essential for cardiovascular development. Here we analyze its pattern of expression and functional role during chick limb development. dHAND expression was observed in the lateral plate mesoderm prior to emergence of the limb buds. Coincident with limb initiation, expression of dHAND became(More)
With rapid progress in understanding the genes that control limb development and patterning interest is becoming focused on the factors that permit the emergence of the limb bud. The current hypothesis is that FGF-8 from the mesonephros induces limb initiation. To test this, the inductive interaction between the Wolffian duct and intermediate mesoderm was(More)
The recombinant limb is a model system that has proved fruitful for analyzing epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and understanding the functional properties of the components of the limb bud. Here we present an overview of some of the insights obtained through the use of this technique. Among these are the understanding that fore or hind limb identity is(More)
Eph receptors and their ligands, the ephrins, have been implicated in early patterning and axon guidance in vertebrate embryos. Members of these families play pivotal roles in the formation of topographic maps in the central nervous system, the formation of brain commissures, and in the guidance of neural crest cells and motor axons through the anterior(More)
Exogenous application of BMP to the lateral plate mesoderm (LPM) of chick embryos at the early somite stage had a positive effect on Nodal expression. BMP applications into the right LPM were followed by a rapid activation of Nodal, while applications into the left LPM resulted in expansion of the normal domain of Nodal expression. Conversely, blocking of(More)
c-Myc is a transcription factor involved in the control of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, all basic processes for embryogenesis. To analyze c-Myc roles in limb development, we overexpressed c-myc in chick embryos using a retroviral vector. Forced c-myc expression resulted in enlarged limbs, because of an increase in cell size not(More)
Recombinant limbs were performed by ensembling dissociated-reaggregated wing bud mesoderm inside an ectodermal hull. The zone of polarizing activity was excluded from the mesoderm used to perform the recombinant limbs (non-polarized recombinants), and grafted when desired (polarized recombinants). Reorganization of patterning progressively occurred in the(More)