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BACKGROUND CONSORT guidelines call for precise reporting of behavior change interventions: we need rigorous methods of characterizing active content of interventions with precision and specificity. OBJECTIVES The objective of this study is to develop an extensive, consensually agreed hierarchically structured taxonomy of techniques [behavior change(More)
BACKGROUND One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are(More)
BACKGROUND There is an important gap between the implications of clinical research evidence and the routine clinical practice of healthcare professionals. Because individual decisions are often central to adoption of a clinical-related behaviour, more information about the cognitive mechanisms underlying behaviours is needed to improve behaviour change(More)
In interview studies, sample size is often justified by interviewing participants until reaching 'data saturation'. However, there is no agreed method of establishing this. We propose principles for deciding saturation in theory-based interview studies (where conceptual categories are pre-established by existing theory). First, specify a minimum sample size(More)
BACKGROUND The issue of diagnostic disclosure in dementia has been debated extensively in professional journals, but empirical data concerning disclosure in dementia has not previously been systematically reviewed. OBJECTIVE To review empirical data regarding diagnostic disclosure in dementia. METHODS Five electronic databases were searched up to(More)
BACKGROUND Determinants of practice are factors that might prevent or enable improvements. Several checklists, frameworks, taxonomies, and classifications of determinants of healthcare professional practice have been published. In this paper, we describe the development of a comprehensive, integrated checklist of determinants of practice (the TICD(More)
BACKGROUND TO THE DEBATE The UK Medical Research Council defines complex interventions as those comprising "a number of separate elements which seem essential to the proper functioning of the interventions although the 'active ingredient' of the intervention that is effective is difficult to specify." A typical example is specialist care on a stroke unit,(More)
Traditional approaches to disseminating research findings have failed to achieve optimal healthcare. In a systematic review of 235 studies of guideline dissemination and implementation strategies, we observed the following: there was a median 10% improvement across studies, suggesting that it is possible to change healthcare provider behaviour and improve(More)
BACKGROUND Clinical guidelines are needed on whether or not to use anticoagulant therapy to prevent stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. We did a Markov decision analysis to model decision-making with regard to warfarin treatment in patients with atrial fibrillation, and used the model to develop evaluative guidelines. METHODS The(More)
BACKGROUND Psychological models are used to understand and predict behaviour in a wide range of settings, but have not been consistently applied to health professional behaviours, and the contribution of differing theories is not clear. This study explored the usefulness of a range of models to predict an evidence-based behaviour -- the placing of fissure(More)