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We give an overview of the work done with the Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d'Essais-Systemes de Reference Temps-Espace (LNE-SYRTE) fountain ensemble during the last five years. After a description of the clock ensemble, comprising three fountains, FO1, FO2, and FOM, and the newest developments, we review recent studies of several systematic(More)
A cryogenic sapphire microwave resonator oscillator (CSO) has been constructed, which now consistently exhibits the best measured long-term and fractional frequency performance for such an oscillator. The single oscillator long-term square root Allan variance was measured at about 2 x 10<sup>-17</sup>radictau with a negative drift of about 2.2 x(More)
Phase-noise spectral density of a 9-GHz oscillator has been reduced to -160 dBc/Hz at 1-kHz offset frequency, which is the lowest phase noise ever measured at microwave frequencies. This performance was achieved by frequency locking a conventional loop oscillator to a high-Q sapphire dielectric resonator operating at the elevated level of dissipated power(More)
This work demonstrates that ultra-low phase-noise oscillators with a single-sideband phase-noise spectral density approaching -160 dBc/Hz at Fourier frequency of 1 kHz can be constructed at microwave frequencies (8 to 10 GHz). Such noise performance has been achieved by frequency locking a conventional loop oscillator to a temperature-stabilized sapphire(More)
The anisotropic loss tangent has been determined in monocrystalline sapphire for components parallel and perpendicular to the crystal axis, using the whispering gallery (WG) mode method. The Q-factors of quasi-TE and quasi-TM modes were measured precisely in four cylindrical sapphire resonators at room temperature, from which was determined a maximum(More)
Usually a frequency-stabilized standing wave resonator-oscillator incorporating a resonator as a frequency discriminator requires a circulator to separate the injected and reflected wave, A ferrite circulator is a noisy device and can limit the phase noise or frequency stability. Moreover, we show that the noise in a circulator varies, and detailed low(More)
Two liquid nitrogen-cooled sapphire loaded cavities (SLC's) operating at about 80 K have been successfully constructed, Both cavities were designed to operate on the whispering gallery (WG) E/sub 12, 1, /spl delta// mode at a resonant frequency of 8.95 GHz. The first SLC was used as the frequency-determining element in a loop oscillator, while the second(More)
A possibility of "real-time" noise measurements with spectral resolution better than a standard thermal noise limit has been experimentally demonstrated at microwave frequencies. The enhancement in the sensitivity of spectral measurements was achieved due to more efficient use of the signal power via the power recycling technique. By utilizing such a(More)
The Bragg reflection technique improves the Q-factor of a resonator by reducing conductor and dielectric losses. This is achieved by designing a low-loss inner resonant region (usually free space) surrounded by an outer anti-resonant region made of distributed Bragg reflector layers. In this paper we develop a simple non-Maxwellian model and apply it to(More)
We report the generation of millimeter wave signals with frequency instability of a few parts in 10<sup>16</sup>. Such performance was achieved at 103.750 GHz by frequency multiplication of two nominally identical 12.969 GHz oscillators based on liquid helium cooled sapphire dielectric resonators. The multiplication stages were shown to only add a small(More)