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BACKGROUND Although disuse of skeletal muscle and undernutrition are often cited as potentially reversible causes of frailty in elderly people, the efficacy of interventions targeted specifically at these deficits has not been carefully studied. METHODS We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial comparing progressive resistance exercise training,(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine how multiple risk factors for osteoporotic fractures could be modified by high-intensity strength training exercises in postmenopausal women. DESIGN Randomized controlled trial of 1-year duration. SETTING Exercise laboratory at Tufts University, Boston, Mass. POPULATION Forty postmenopausal white women, 50 to 70 years of age,(More)
OBJECTIVE To test the effects of a high intensity home-based progressive strength training program on the clinical signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. METHODS Forty-six community dwelling patients, aged 55 years or older with knee pain and radiographic evidence of knee OA, were randomized to a 4 month home based progressive strength(More)
The effects of a supervised 1-y walking program and increased dietary calcium (milk supplement, 831 mg/d, vs placebo drink, 41 mg/d) on bones were examined in 36 postmenopausal women (60.2 +/- 6.5 y). Trabecular bone-mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine (L1-L3), measured by computed tomography, increased by 0.5% in exercising women (n = 18) and(More)
Habitual physical exercise has been reported to have beneficial effects on plasma lipoproteins. To examine this question in women, plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, and apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and B levels, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) particle size were determined in 25 women runners (9 of whom had exercise-related secondary amenorrhea) and 36(More)
Serum hormone levels and bone mineral status were studied in 18 sedentary and 15 endurance-trained postmenopausal women (mean age, 62 yr). The endurance-trained women had lower body weight, lower body fat, and higher aerobic capacity than the sedentary women (P less than 0.05). There were no differences in current calcium intake between the 2 groups, as(More)
Objective: To assess intra- and inter-site soft tissue variability by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Design: Cross-sectional trial. Setting: Three medical research institutions. Subjects: Five humans (in vivo) and four phantoms (in vitro), configured from two whole body phantoms with artificial skeletons and thickness overlays. Interventions:(More)
A classic body-composition method is estimation of total-body skeletal muscle mass (SM, in kg) from 24-h urinary creatinine excretion (in g). Two approaches of unknown validity have been used to calculate SM from creatinine: one assumes a constant ratio of SM to creatinine, the so-called creatinine equivalence (k), and that SM = k x creatinine; the other(More)
Increased gait instability is common in older adults, even in the absence of overt disease. The goal of the present study was to quantitatively investigate the factors that contribute to gait instability and its potential reversibility in functionally impaired older adults. We studied 67 older men and women with functional impairment before and after they(More)
The delayed-gamma neutron activation facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory was originally calibrated using an anthropomorphic hollow phantom filled with solutions containing predetermined amounts of Ca. However, 99% of the total Ca in the human body is not homogeneously distributed but contained within the skeleton. Recently, an artificial skeleton was(More)