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The clonal relationships among 187 bloodstream isolates of Escherichia coli from 179 patients at Boston, Mass., Long Beach, Calif., and Nairobi, Kenya, were determined by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), analysis of polymorphisms associated with the ribosomal operon (ribotyping), and serotyping. MLEE based on 20 enzymes resolved 101 electrophoretic… (More)
We describe a simple algorithm for computing a homology score for Escherichia coli promoters based on DNA sequence alone. The homology score was related to 31 values, measured in vitro, of RNA polymerase selectivity, which we define as the product KBk2, the apparent second order rate constant for open complex formation. We found that promoter strength could… (More)
We show that the occurrence and homology score (1) of promoter-sites in DNA depends upon the base composition of the DNA. We used simple probability theory to calculate the mean homology score expected for all promoter-sites that had a specific match in the canonical hexamers. By using the square root of this mean score as a measure of significance, we… (More)
A second nitrogen fixation (nif) operon in the cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) Anabaena (Nostoc) sp. strain PCC 7120 has been identified and sequenced. It is located just upstream of the nifHDK operon and consists of four genes in the order nifB, fdxN, nifS, and nifU. The three nif genes were identified on the basis of their similarity with the… (More)
In the absence of a combined nitrogen source, such as ammonia, approximately every tenth vegetative cell along filaments of the cyanobacterium Anabaena develops into a heterocyst, a terminally differentiated cell that is morphologically and biochemically specialized for nitrogen fixation. At least two specific DNA rearrangements involving the… (More)
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