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The phenotype of macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions can vary dramatically, from a large lipid laden foam cell to a small inflammatory cell. Classically, the concept of macrophage heterogeneity discriminates between two extremes called either pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages or anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. Polarisation of plaque macrophages is(More)
Macrophages show extreme heterogeneity and different subsets have been characterized by their activation route and their function. For instance, macrophage subsets are distinct by acting differently under pathophysiological conditions such as inflammation and cancer. Macrophages also contribute to angiogenesis, but the role of various specific subsets in(More)
CD40-CD40 ligand (CD40L) interactions play a central role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. In the late 1990s, we and others have shown that complete inhibition of the CD40L signaling pathway resulted in a decrease in atherosclerosis and in the induction of a stable atherosclerotic plaque phenotype. These stable plaques contained high(More)
The DELTA like-4 ligand (DLL4) belongs to the highly conserved NOTCH family and is specifically expressed in the endothelium. DLL4 regulates crucial processes in vascular growth, including endothelial cell (EC) sprouting and arterial specification. Its expression is increased by VEGF-A. In the present study, we show that VEGF-induced DLL4 expression depends(More)
OBJECTIVE To elucidate the downstream mechanisms of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), a key receptor in angiogenesis, which has been associated with atherosclerotic plaque growth and instability. METHODS AND RESULTS By using a yeast-2-hybrid assay, we identified A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10) as a novel binding partner(More)
We investigated the role of CD40 and CD40L in neointima formation and identified the downstream CD40-signaling intermediates (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-receptor associated factors [TRAF]) involved. Neointima formation was induced in wild-type, CD40(-/-), CD40L(-/-), and in CD40(-/-) mice that contained a CD40 transgene with or without mutations at the(More)
Impaired efferocytosis has been shown to be associated with, and even to contribute to progression of, chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. Enhancing efferocytosis has been proposed as strategy to treat diseases involving inflammation. Here we present the strategy to increase ‘eat me’ signals on the surface of apoptotic cells by targeting(More)
Inflammation is a key process in various diseases, characterized by leukocyte recruitment to the inflammatory site. This study investigates the role of a disintegrin and a metalloproteinase (ADAM) 10 and ADAM17 for leukocyte migration in vitro and in a murine model of acute pulmonary inflammation. Inhibition experiments or RNA knockdown indicated that(More)
The myxoma virus protein Serp-1 is a member of the serine protease inhibitor superfamily. Serp-1 potently inhibits human serum proteases including plasmin, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), and tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). Serp-1 also displays a high antiinflammatory activity, rendering it a promising candidate for antiatherosclerotic(More)
Inflammation and cytokine pathways are crucial for the development and progression of atherosclerotic lesions. In this review, the hypothesis that immunomodulatory drugs provide a possible therapeutic modality for cardiovascular disease is evaluated. Therefore, after a short overview of the specific inflammatory pathways involved in atherosclerosis,(More)