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As most stingless bee species depend on preexisting cavities, principally tree hollows, nesting site availability may represent an important restriction in the structuring of their forest communities. The present study examined the spatial dynamics of stingless bee communities in an area of Atlantic Forest by evaluating their swarming to trap-nests. The(More)
The purpose of this study was to compare contrast sensitivity estimated from transient visual evoked potentials (VEPs) elicited by achromatic pattern-reversal and pattern-onset/offset modes. The stimuli were 2-cpd, achromatic horizontal gratings presented either as a 1 Hz pattern reversal or a 300 ms onset/700 ms offset stimulus. Contrast thresholds were(More)
This study aimed at testing the utility of characters derived from chitinous structures of the sting apparatus for elucidating relationships among the genera of Epiponini. The characters were obtained from the spiracular and quadrate plates, gonostylus, and sting. The data matrix was analyzed using parsimony with equal and implied weighting. Sting(More)
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