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Intensive broiler (meat) chicken production now exceeds 800 million birds each year in the United Kingdom and 2 x 10(10) birds worldwide, but it attracts accusations of poor welfare. The European Union is currently adopting standards for broilers aimed at a chief welfare concern--namely, overcrowding--by limiting maximum 'stocking density' (bird weight per(More)
A thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy This thesis presents one possible way to design a control architecture that can be used to govern artiicial animals. Such artefacts perform multiple-tasks and are expected to exist in a somewhat hostile environment { they have to be adaptive. It also defends the position that automata, and animals,(More)
Animal communication is studied both by neurobiologists and by evolutionary biologists, but in very different ways. The purpose of this article is to show how both groups could benefit from a greater appreciation of each other's approach. Evolutionary biologists should take more account of the role played by the sensory systems and brains of receivers in(More)
Four 18-week-old Ross Brown laying hens were trained to discriminate between slides of the heads of familiar or unfamiliar conspecifics. Those individuals trained to discriminate between slides of familiar conspecifics failed to show a better discrimination ability when presented with slides of novel views of these object birds, as compared with subjects(More)
Operant studies on pigeons using slide-projected images suggest that photographs of geographical locations might be used as a research tool to study the importance of visual landmarks in homing. Before using this method, however, it is necessary to show that pigeons do see photographic slides as representing real world locations. After reviewing the(More)
We analyse a simple model of the establishment and maintenance of dominance hierarchies in hens. To be beneficial, dominance relationships require that the probability of meeting the same individual repeatedly is high, otherwise costs of establishing the dominance relation are never recouped. Winners and losers benefit from dominance relationships, not(More)
To Charles Darwin, it was obvious that animals are sentient, so why should the idea not be now universally accepted? I review the difficulties and issues with animal sentience with a view to answering some of the critics. Sentience is 'the hard problem' and it is important we acknowledge the difficulties and do not claim too much for the evidence we have.(More)