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We have resolved a central and long-standing paradox in understanding the amplification of rod phototransduction by making direct measurements of the gains of the underlying enzymatic amplifiers. We find that under optimized conditions a single photoisomerized rhodopsin activates transducin molecules and phosphodiesterase (PDE) catalytic subunits at rates(More)
A central step in vertebrate visual transduction is the rapid drop in cGMP levels that causes cGMP-gated ion channels in the photoreceptor cell membrane to close. It has long been a puzzle that the cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) whose activation causes this decrease contains not only catalytic sites for cGMP hydrolysis but also noncatalytic cGMP binding(More)
Recoverin is a 23-kDa Ca(2+)-binding protein found predominantly in vertebrate photoreceptor cells. Recent electrophysiological and biochemical studies suggest that recoverin may regulate the photoresponse by inhibiting rhodopsin phosphorylation. We find in both cell homogenates and reconstituted systems that the inhibition of rhodopsin phosphorylation by(More)
This study examines whether changes in cGMP concentration initiated by illumination of frog rod photoreceptors occur rapidly enough to implicate cGMP as an intermediate between rhodopsin activation in the disc membrane and permeability changes in the plasma membrane. Previous studies using whole retinas or isolated outer segments have provided conflicting(More)
The concentration of guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP) has been examined in suspensions of freshly isolated frog rod outer segments using conditions which previously have been shown to maintain the ability of outer segments to perform a light-induced permeability change (presence of calf serum, anti-oxidant, and low calcium concentration).(More)
The photoreceptor G protein, transducin, is one of the class of heterotrimeric G proteins that mediates between membrane receptors and intracellular enzymes or ion channels. Light-activated rhodopsin catalyses the exchange of GDP for GTP on multiple transducin molecules. Activated transducin then stimulates cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase by releasing an(More)
The photoreceptor G-protein, transducin, belongs to the class of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins that transfer information from activated seven-span membrane receptors to effector enzymes or ion channels. Like other G-proteins, transducin acts as a molecular clock. It is activated by photoexcited rhodopsin which catalyzes the exchange of(More)
We have examined the Ca2+ content and pathways of Ca2+ transport in frog rod outer segments using the Ca2+-indicating dye arsenazo III. The experiments employed suspensions of outer segments of truncated, but physiologically functional, frog rods (OS-IS), intact isolated outer segments (intact OS), and leaky outer segments (leaky OS with a plasma membrane(More)
gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the inhibitory transmitter compound at the lobster neuromuscular junction. This paper presents a comparison of the enzymes of GABA metabolism in single identified inhibitory and excitatory axons from lobster walking legs. Inhibitory axons contain more than 100 times as much glutamic decarboxylase activity as do excitatory(More)