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Inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) is a proximal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress sensor and a central mediator of the unfolded protein response. In a human glioma model, inhibition of IRE1alpha correlated with down-regulation of prevalent proangiogenic factors such as VEGF-A, IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-8. Significant up-regulation of antiangiogenic gene(More)
Even after gross tumor resection and combined radiochemotherapy, glioblastomas recur within a few months. Salvage therapy often consists of rechallenging with temozolomide in a dose-intensified schedule. Previously, low-dose metronomic temozolomide in combination with cyclo-oxigenase 2 inhibitors has had a beneficial effect as first-line treatment for(More)
Current clinical protocols favor a combination of antiangiogenic/antivascular compounds with classical chemotherapy. However, it remains unclear to what extent an antiangiogenic/antivascular therapy influences the delivery of chemotherapy. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of the antiangiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitor(More)
A hypoxic microenvironment induces resistance to alkylating agents by activating targets in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. The molecular mechanisms involved in this mTOR-mediated hypoxia-induced chemoresistance, however, are unclear. Here we identify the mTOR target N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) as a key determinant of(More)
Leukocyte recruitment to sites of infection or inflammation requires multiple adhesive events. Although numerous players promoting leukocyte-endothelial interactions have been characterized, functionally important endogenous inhibitors of leukocyte adhesion have not been identified. Here we describe the endothelially derived secreted molecule Del-1(More)
OBJECT The objective of this report is to describe a new approach to identify the optimal cortical target point for extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery, to reliably find suitable recipient vessels for the anastomosis. METHODS Thirty consecutive patients (17 men and 13 women; mean age 54.6 +/- 11.79 years [+/- standard deviation]) with(More)
We analyzed cortical microvascular parameters using intraoperative ICG (Indocyaninegreen)-Videoangiography in 13 patients with Moyamoya disease, and carried out correlative studies by comparing them with clinical parameters obtained by digital subtraction angiography, physical examination, and regional cerebral blood flow studies. Patients with reduced(More)
OBJECT Several approaches have been established for the treatment of intracranial hypertension; however, a considerable number of patients remain unresponsive to even aggressive therapeutic strategies. Lumbar CSF drainage has been contraindicated in the setting of increased intracranial pressure (ICP) because of possible cerebral herniation. The authors of(More)
BACKGROUND Acute neurological deficits after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) correlate with outcome, and a phase of acute hypoperfusion was characterized recently. Indocyanine green (ICG) videography is an established intraoperative imaging technique with important descriptive potential. OBJECTIVE To analyze whether ICG can be used to analyze and confirm(More)
OBJECT Different revascularization procedures are used in the treatment of patients with moyamoya disease (MMD). The aim of this study was to investigate the relative contribution of direct and indirect revascularization procedures to the restoration of collateral blood supply in adult and pediatric patients with MMD. METHODS The authors performed 39(More)