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The immune system, like many systems responsive to specific stimuli, requires feedback regulation. The key regulatory element determining antigen-specific responsiveness is the effector T helper. As the response tends to overshoot, a feedback control of the magnitude of the response is critical to avoid immunopathology. This is the proposed role of the(More)
Drawing on metaphors from linguistics and information theory, Atlan and Cohen challenge us to take a very different view of the immune system, one that engages in constant chatter among the constituents and allows the immune system to arrive at a decision about what to, and not to, destroy. Our commentary responds to this challenge and points out many(More)
  • M Cohn
  • 2015
There are three questions under re-examination here that have been inspired by Bretscher's 'Two-step, Two-signal' model. First, what is the nature of the steps required in order for antigen-responsive cells to become effectors? Second, how does the immune system get started? Third and the most troublesome, what is the mechanism that relates the delivery of(More)
Living systems operate under interactive selective pressures. Populations have the ability to anticipate the future by generating a repertoire of elements that cope with new selective pressures. If the repertoire of such elements were transcendental, natural selection could not operate because any one of them would be too rare. This is the problem that(More)
The existence of antigen-receptors, BCR, and T cell antigen-receptors, that are “polyreactive”, necessitates a rethinking of its effect on two problems faced by the “adaptive” immune system: the self (S)–nonself (NS) discrimination and the determination of effector class. Here, we will concentrate on the impact of polyreactivity on the S–NS discrimination.(More)
  • M Cohn
  • 2006
In analysing the Zinkernagel and Hengartner's 'Credo 2004,' Anderson introduces his 'development-context model' for the immunity-tolerance discrimination. He compares this model with the 'geographical model of Credo 2004' and our 'time-based two-signal model'. The discussion here deals with the advantages and limitations of the Anderson model considered(More)
A single injection of dextran B1355 into BALB/c mice results in a rapid Xt anti-a(1,3) dextran response (1-3). One of the genes controlfing this response is in the heavy chain locus (1, 4) and is symbolized as v~,~t 31 (3). Mice lacking this gene fall into two classes: those that yield a ~-anti-a(l,3) response after repeated injections and those that never(More)