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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to atherosclerosis of the arterial vessel wall and to thrombosis is the foremost cause of premature mortality and of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in Europe, and is also increasingly common in developing countries.1 In the European Union, the economic cost of CVD represents annually E192 billion1 in direct and(More)
AIMS The first aim was to critically evaluate the extent to which familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is underdiagnosed and undertreated. The second aim was to provide guidance for screening and treatment of FH, in order to prevent coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS AND RESULTS Of the theoretical estimated prevalence of 1/500 for heterozygous FH, <1%(More)
Authors/Task Force Members: Željko Reiner* (ESC Chairperson) (Croatia) Alberico L. Catapano* (EAS Chairperson)* (Italy), Guy De Backer (Belgium), Ian Graham (Ireland), Marja-Riitta Taskinen (Finland), Olov Wiklund (Sweden), Stefan Agewall (Norway), Eduardo Alegria (Spain), M. John Chapman (France), Paul Durrington (UK), Serap Erdine (Turkey), Julian Halcox(More)
AIMS The aims of the study were, first, to critically evaluate lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] as a cardiovascular risk factor and, second, to advise on screening for elevated plasma Lp(a), on desirable levels, and on therapeutic strategies. METHODS AND RESULTS The robust and specific association between elevated Lp(a) levels and increased cardiovascular disease(More)
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) possess key atheroprotective biological properties, including cellular cholesterol efflux capacity, and anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. Plasma HDL particles are highly heterogeneous in physicochemical properties, metabolism, and biological activity. Within the circulating HDL particle population, small, dense(More)
BACKGROUND Statins reduce adverse cardiovascular outcomes and slow the progression of coronary atherosclerosis in proportion to their ability to reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. However, few studies have either assessed the ability of intensive statin treatments to achieve disease regression or compared alternative approaches to maximal(More)
Even at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal, patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper aims (i) to critically appraise evidence for elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as cardiovascular risk factors, and(More)
OBJECTIVE The relationship of the structural and functional heterogeneity of HDL particles to protection of LDL against oxidative stress is indeterminate. METHODS AND RESULTS HDL subfractions of defined physicochemical properties were isolated by density gradient ultracentrifugation from normolipidemic human serum (n=8), and their capacity to protect LDL(More)
There is now abundant evidence to substantiate an important role of hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein in cellular gene expression as well as in the viral cycle. Thus the subcellular localization of this protein has important implications. However, several studies have shown controversial results: the HCV core has been, indeed, described as cytoplasmic or(More)