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To investigate functional changes in the brain serotonin transporter (SERT) after chronic antidepressant treatment, several techniques were used to assess SERT activity, density, or its mRNA content. Rats were treated by osmotic minipump for 21 d with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) paroxetine or sertraline, the selective norepinephrine(More)
Serotonin uptake, mediated by the serotonin transporter (SERT), is blocked acutely by antidepressants such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), but such blockade does not correlate temporally with the onset of therapeutic improvement. Treatment with SSRIs for 21 d induced downregulation of the SERT (Benmansour et al., 1999). The time(More)
The brain noradrenergic system is activated by stress, and modulates the activity of forebrain regions involved in behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to stress, such as the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTL). This region of the limbic forebrain receives dense noradrenergic innervation, and has been implicated in both anxiety and(More)
Brain norepinephrine (NE) modulates many aspects of the stress response. The interaction between NE and neuropeptides such as galanin, with which it is closely associated and which may be released from noradrenergic terminals under conditions of high activity, has not been well studied. We therefore investigated the modulatory effects of galanin in the(More)
We compared the response to repeated social defeat in rats selected as high (HR) and low (LR) responders to novelty. In experiment 1, we investigated the behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of repeated social defeat in HR-LR rats. By the last defeat session, HR rats exhibited less passive-submissive behaviors than LR rats, and exhibited higher(More)
Many aspects of drug abuse and addiction share neurobiological substrates with the modulatory processes underlying the response and adaptation to acute stress. In particular, the ascending noradrenergic system has been implicated in facilitating the response to stress, and in stress-induced reinstatement of drug seeking behavior. Thus, to better understand(More)
The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is a component of the limbic fear-anxiety circuit, and has also been implicated in regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis. The CeA receives dense noradrenergic innervation, and is rich in expression of alpha(1)-adrenergic receptors. We hypothesized that norepinephrine (NE), acting on(More)
The function of the second nuclear estrogen receptor, estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta), in the brain is largely unknown. The present study tested whether 1) ERbeta in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus has a direct role in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis-mediated stress function, and 2) whether corticosterone (CORT) can(More)
RATIONALE Antidepressant medications are effective only in a subpopulation of patients with depression, and some patients respond to certain drugs, but not others. The biological bases for these clinical observations remain unexplained. OBJECTIVE To investigate individual differences in response to antidepressants, we have examined the effects of the(More)
The negative physical and affective aspects of opioid abstinence contribute to the prolongation of substance abuse. Withdrawal treatment is successful only in a subset of subjects, yet little is known about the neurobiological causes of these individual differences. Here, we compare the somatic and motivational components of opioid withdrawal in animals(More)