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Brain norepinephrine (NE) modulates many aspects of the stress response. The interaction between NE and neuropeptides such as galanin, with which it is closely associated and which may be released from noradrenergic terminals under conditions of high activity, has not been well studied. We therefore investigated the modulatory effects of galanin in the(More)
We compared the response to repeated social defeat in rats selected as high (HR) and low (LR) responders to novelty. In experiment 1, we investigated the behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of repeated social defeat in HR-LR rats. By the last defeat session, HR rats exhibited less passive-submissive behaviors than LR rats, and exhibited higher(More)
The modulation of acetylcholine (ACh) release by 5-HT3 receptor activation was studied using in vivo microdialysis. Spontaneous and K+-stimulated ACh release were measured in frontoparietal cortex and hippocampus of freely moving rats. Two consecutive exposures to high K+ produced ACh release of similar magnitude. In the cortex, serotonin (5-HT) failed to(More)
RATIONALE Antidepressant medications are effective only in a subpopulation of patients with depression, and some patients respond to certain drugs, but not others. The biological bases for these clinical observations remain unexplained. OBJECTIVE To investigate individual differences in response to antidepressants, we have examined the effects of the(More)
The function of the second nuclear estrogen receptor, estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta), in the brain is largely unknown. The present study tested whether 1) ERbeta in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus has a direct role in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis-mediated stress function, and 2) whether corticosterone (CORT) can(More)
The negative physical and affective aspects of opioid abstinence contribute to the prolongation of substance abuse. Withdrawal treatment is successful only in a subset of subjects, yet little is known about the neurobiological causes of these individual differences. Here, we compare the somatic and motivational components of opioid withdrawal in animals(More)
1. The effects of histamine and agents at histamine receptors on spontaneous and 100 mM K(+)-evoked release of acetylcholine, measured by microdialysis from the cortex of freely moving, rats, and on cognitive tests are described. 2. Local administration of histamine (0.1-100 microM) failed to affect spontaneous but inhibited 100 mM K(+)-stimulated release(More)