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Twenty-four adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) with central nervous system symptoms were studied for antiretroviral resistance mutations in HIV-1 RNA obtained from paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma samples. Paired sequences were obtained from 21 and 13 patients for reverse transcriptase (RT) and for protease,(More)
A reliable selective PCR procedure that combines the use of additionally mutated primers with the specificity-enhancing properties of a commercial preparation (Perfect Match, Stratagene) is described. The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 pol gene point mutations known to confer in vitro resistance to azidothymidine were examined as a model for(More)
Great variability in the course of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection results from a complex interplay between host and virus factors. Some of the patients with prolonged nonprogressive infection have been reported to harbor virus variants with gross deletions in the accessory nef gene that has been implicated in in vivo pathogenicity in(More)
An ultrasensitive version of an 'in-house' reverse transcription-competitive polymerase chain reaction assay described previously for quantitation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA in plasma was developed. The increase in sensitivity from 400 to 50 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml was achieved by pelleting virus particles from 1.8 ml plasma by(More)
Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are being treated with a number of different combinations of antiretroviral compounds that target the essential viral enzymes reverse transcriptase and protease. Different sets of HIV-1 mutations that confer drug resistance have been well defined; they allow reasonable prediction of the drug(More)
In a preliminary cross-sectional analysis of 109 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected subjects the presence of 2-long terminal repeat (LTR) unintegrated circular HIV-1 DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was found to be associated with both symptomatic infection (P = 0.0037) and low CD4 counts (P = 0.0004). To investigate the(More)
Zidovudine (ZDV) is by far the most widely used drug to counteract human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, both in monotherapy and in combination therapy regimens. However, the majority of patients under prolonged ZDV therapy have been shown to harbour HIV-1 mutant genomes displaying reduced sensitivity to the drug in vitro. In order to(More)
In order to evaluate the possible reactivation of human herpesviruses 6 (HHV-6) and 7 (HHV-7) after heart transplantation, buffy-coat and plasma specimens from 21 transplant patients and 56 healthy blood donors were examined for HHV-6 and HHV-7 DNA by polymerase chain reaction. Human herpesvirus 6 and HHV-7 infection or reactivation has been suggested to(More)
Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and possibly in other proliferative disorders often associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Recent case reports have indicated resolution of KS and clearance of HHV-8 DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in(More)
To analyze the emergence and role of the lamivudine (3TC)-selected HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) M184V mutation under triple therapy, we performed a retrospective study of 40 nucleoside RT inhibitor-pretreated and 16 drug-naive patients who were switched to combined treatment with zidovudine (ZDV) plus 3TC plus a protease inhibitor (PI). Plasma viral(More)