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CONTEXT Childhood vaccination has reduced rubella disease to low levels in the United States, but outbreaks continue to occur. The largest outbreak in the past 5 years occurred in Nebraska in 1999. OBJECTIVES To examine risk factors for disease, susceptibility of the risk population, role of vaccine failure, and the need for new vaccination strategies in(More)
OBJECTIVE To inform policy-makers about introduction of preventive interventions against typhoid, including vaccination. METHODS A population-based prospective surveillance design was used. Study sites where typhoid was considered a problem by local authorities were established in China, India, Indonesia, Pakistan and Viet Nam. Standardized clinical,(More)
In Latin America and the Caribbean, rotavirus causes approximately 15,000 deaths, 75,000 hospitalizations, 2 million clinic visits and 10 million cases of rotavirus diarrhea annually. Two safe vaccines are available that are effective in preventing severe illness. To date, seven countries in Latin America (Brazil, Ecuador, El Salvador, Panama, Mexico,(More)
In 1974, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Expanded Program on Immunization* to provide protection against six vaccine-preventable diseases through routine infant immunization (1). Based on 2015 WHO and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) estimates, global coverage with the third dose of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP3), the(More)
In an urban slum in eastern Kolkata, India, reported diarrhoea rates, healthcare-use patterns, and factors associated with reported diarrhoea episodes were studied as a part of a diarrhoea-surveillance project. Data were collected through a structured interview during a census and healthcare-use survey of an urban slum population in Kolkata. Several(More)
INTRODUCTION The WHO recommends annual influenza vaccination to prevent influenza illness in high-risk groups. Little is known about national influenza immunization policies globally. MATERIAL AND METHODS The 2014 WHO/UNICEF Joint Reporting Form (JRF) on Immunization was adapted to capture data on influenza immunization policies. We combined this dataset(More)
BACKGROUND Seasonal influenza is a viral disease whose annual epidemics are estimated to cause three to five million cases of severe illness and 250,000 to 500,000 deaths worldwide. Vaccination is the main strategy for primary prevention. METHODS To assess the status of influenza vaccination in the Americas, influenza vaccination data reported to the Pan(More)
Oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) have been recommended in cholera-endemic settings and preemptively during outbreaks and complex emergencies. However, experience and guidelines for reactive use after an outbreak has started are limited. In 2010, after over a century without epidemic cholera, an outbreak was reported in Haiti after an earthquake. As intensive(More)
CONTEXT In August 1998, the US Food and Drug Administration licensed the first vaccine against rotavirus, the most important cause of severe childhood diarrhea. Fourteen months later, amid intense media activity, the vaccine was withdrawn after an association was found with intussusception. OBJECTIVES To examine the character of news media stories about(More)
AIMS To conduct a prospective, community based study in an impoverished urban site in Kolkata (formerly Calcutta) in order to measure the burden of cholera, describe its epidemiology, and search for potential risk factors that could be addressed by public health strategies. METHODS The study population was enumerated at the beginning and end of the study(More)