M. Carolina Danovaro-Holliday

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OBJECTIVE To inform policy-makers about introduction of preventive interventions against typhoid, including vaccination. METHODS A population-based prospective surveillance design was used. Study sites where typhoid was considered a problem by local authorities were established in China, India, Indonesia, Pakistan and Viet Nam. Standardized clinical,(More)
In 1974, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Expanded Program on Immunization* to provide protection against six vaccine-preventable diseases through routine infant immunization (1). Based on 2015 WHO and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) estimates, global coverage with the third dose of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP3), the(More)
CONTEXT Childhood vaccination has reduced rubella disease to low levels in the United States, but outbreaks continue to occur. The largest outbreak in the past 5 years occurred in Nebraska in 1999. OBJECTIVES To examine risk factors for disease, susceptibility of the risk population, role of vaccine failure, and the need for new vaccination strategies in(More)
In an urban slum in eastern Kolkata, India, reported diarrhoea rates, healthcare-use patterns, and factors associated with reported diarrhoea episodes were studied as a part of a diarrhoea-surveillance project. Data were collected through a structured interview during a census and healthcare-use survey of an urban slum population in Kolkata. Several(More)
BACKGROUND Seasonal influenza is a viral disease whose annual epidemics are estimated to cause three to five million cases of severe illness and 250,000 to 500,000 deaths worldwide. Vaccination is the main strategy for primary prevention. METHODS To assess the status of influenza vaccination in the Americas, influenza vaccination data reported to the Pan(More)
Oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) have been recommended in cholera-endemic settings and preemptively during outbreaks and complex emergencies. However, experience and guidelines for reactive use after an outbreak has started are limited. In 2010, after over a century without epidemic cholera, an outbreak was reported in Haiti after an earthquake. As intensive(More)
Phase-III vaccine efficacy trials typically employ individually randomized designs intended to ensure that measurements of vaccine protective efficacy reflect only direct vaccine effects. As a result, decisions about introducing newly licensed vaccines into public health programmes often fail to consider the substantially greater protection that may occur(More)
The goal of eliminating indigenous rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in the United States in the near future is now within reach, because rubella incidence has been sustained at record-low levels since the mid-1990s. Effective prevention strategies to eliminate CRS and rubella require improvement in the surveillance of CRS and congenital rubella(More)
AIMS To conduct a prospective, community based study in an impoverished urban site in Kolkata (formerly Calcutta) in order to measure the burden of cholera, describe its epidemiology, and search for potential risk factors that could be addressed by public health strategies. METHODS The study population was enumerated at the beginning and end of the study(More)
CONTEXT In August 1998, the US Food and Drug Administration licensed the first vaccine against rotavirus, the most important cause of severe childhood diarrhea. Fourteen months later, amid intense media activity, the vaccine was withdrawn after an association was found with intussusception. OBJECTIVES To examine the character of news media stories about(More)