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A 2.91-billion base pair (bp) consensus sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome was generated by the whole-genome shotgun sequencing method. The 14.8-billion bp DNA sequence was generated over 9 months from 27,271,853 high-quality sequence reads (5.11-fold coverage of the genome) from both ends of plasmid clones made from the DNA of five(More)
Metformin is a widely used drug for treatment of type 2 diabetes with no defined cellular mechanism of action. Its glucose-lowering effect results from decreased hepatic glucose production and increased glucose utilization. Metformin's beneficial effects on circulating lipids have been linked to reduced fatty liver. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a(More)
This review provides a model for the role of oxidative stress in the etiology of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Epidemiological studies of diet, environmental and behavioral risk factors suggest that oxidative stress is a contributing factor of AMD. Pathological studies indicate that damage to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is an early event(More)
The complete genome sequence of Geobacter sulfurreducens, a delta-proteobacterium, reveals unsuspected capabilities, including evidence of aerobic metabolism, one-carbon and complex carbon metabolism, motility, and chemotactic behavior. These characteristics, coupled with the possession of many two-component sensors and many c-type cytochromes, reveal an(More)
Systemic infusions of the muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonists atropine and scopolamine (atr/scop) produce an amnesic syndrome in humans, subhuman primates, and rodents. In humans, this syndrome may resemble early symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. Behavioral studies in rats have demonstrated that the medial septum/diagonal band of Broca (MSDB), which(More)
Despite the fact that the continuity of morphology of fossil specimens of modern humans found in China has repeatedly challenged the Out-of-Africa hypothesis, Chinese populations are underrepresented in genetic studies. Genetic profiles of 28 populations sampled in China supported the distinction between southern and northern populations, while the latter(More)
The medial septum/diagonal band (MSDB), which gives rise to the septohippocampal pathway, is a critical locus for the mnemonic effects of muscarinic drugs. Infusion of muscarinic cholinergic agonists into the MSDB enhance learning and memory processes both in young and aged rats and produce a continuous theta rhythm in the hippocampus. Intraseptal(More)
To examine mechanisms by which native low-density lipoprotein (n-LDL) perturbs endothelial cell (EC) release of superoxide anion (O2-) and nitric oxide (NO), ECs were incubated with n-LDL at 240 mg cholesterol per deciliter for 4 days with media changes every 24 hours. n-LDL increases EC release of O2- by more than fourfold and increases nitrite production(More)
Antimicrobial cationic peptides are prevalent throughout nature as part of the intrinsic defenses of most organisms, and have been proposed as a blueprint for the design of novel antimicrobial agents. They are known to interact with membranes, and it has been frequently proposed that this represents their antibacterial target. To see if this was a general(More)