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The authors describe the design and implementation of a large multiethnic cohort established to study diet and cancer in the United States. They detail the source of the subjects, sample size, questionnaire development, pilot work, and approaches to future analyses. The cohort consists of 215,251 adult men and women (age 45-75 years at baseline) living in(More)
BACKGROUND Breast cancer incidence rates have historically been 4-7 times higher in the United States than in China or Japan, although the reasons remain elusive. When Chinese, Japanese, or Filipino women migrate to the United States, breast cancer risk rises over several generations and approaches that among U.S. Whites. PURPOSE Our objective was to(More)
The performance of the dietary questionnaire used in a multiethnic cohort study in Hawaii and Los Angeles was assessed in a calibration substudy that compared diet reported from the questionnaire with three 24-hour dietary recalls. For the calibration substudy, subjects from each of eight subgroups defined by sex and ethnic group (African-American,(More)
An increased level of serum estrogen is one marker of breast cancer risk. We have recently reported that increased risk of advanced breast cancer is associated with a common allele of the cytochrome P450c17alpha gene (CYP17), designated A2. We now show that CYP17 genotype is associated with serum hormone levels among 83 young, nulliparous women. Serum(More)
Prostate cancer is the most common serious cancer diagnosed in men in the United States. This disease is also characterized by a striking racial/ethnic variation in incidence: highest in African-Americans, intermediate in Caucasians, slightly lower in Latinos, and lowest in Asians. Ample biochemical and epidemiological evidence suggests a role for(More)
For most cancer sites there is a linear log-log relationship between incidence and age. This relationship does not hold for breast cancer, and certain 'key' breast cancer risk factors suggest that breast tissue does not 'age' in step with calendar time. A quantitative description of 'breast tissue age' is suggested which brings the age-incidence curve of(More)
Epidemiologic studies suggest that ovarian hormones contribute to the development of breast cancer at all stages. Early menopause and premenopausal obesity reduces the risk while postmenopausal obesity and menopausal estrogen replacement therapy increases the risk. Combined oral contraceptives and Depo-Provera do not reduce the risk. It appears that(More)
We conducted a study to determine whether the risk of breast cancer associated with oral contraceptive (OC) use is higher in women with BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations than in other women by examining whether breast cancer patients with these mutations were more likely than breast cancer patients without mutations in BRCA1/BRCA2 to have used OCs. We tested for BRCA1(More)
Breast cancer rates among Asian-Americans are lower than those of US whites but considerably higher than rates prevailing in Asia. It is suspected that migration to the US brings about a change in endocrine function among Asian women, although reasons for this change remain obscure. The high intake of soy in Asia and its reduced intake among Asian-Americans(More)
In this case--control study of 108 cases of testicular cancer in men under 30 years of age, cryptorchidism was a major risk factor [relative risk (RR) = 9.0]. Low birth weight was also associated with increased risk (RR = 3.2). Having severe acne at puberty was protective (RR = 0.37). Interviews with mothers of cases revealed that exposure of the mother to(More)