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Two strains of the soybean endosymbiont Bradyrhizobium japonicum, USDA 110 and 61 A101 C, were mutagenized with transposon Tn5. After plant infection tests of a total of 6,926 kanamycin and streptomycin resistant transconjugants, 25 mutants were identified that are defective in nodule formation (Nod-) or nitrogen fixation (Fix-). Seven Nod- mutants were(More)
We and others have shown previously that hairpin ribozyme genes, when stably expressed in cells, can reduce the steady-state levels of target mRNA and their cognate proteins. Despite this capability, ribozymes have not been as widely used in knockdown experiments as one might expect, probably because specific rules governing the selection of ribozymes that(More)
The nucleotide sequence of Bacillus phage Nf gene E has been determined. Gene E codes for phage terminal protein which is the primer necessary for the initiation of DNA replication. The deduced amino acid sequence of Nf terminal protein is approximately 66% homologous with the terminal proteins of Bacillus phages PZA and luminal diameter 29, and shows(More)
The 5'-untranslated region of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is highly conserved, folds into a complex secondary structure, and functions as an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) to initiate translation of HCV proteins. We have developed a selection system based on a randomized hairpin ribozyme gene library to identify cellular factors involved in HCV IRES(More)
Two effective ribozymes (CR2 and CR4) that target HCV RNA 5' UTR and capsid gene regions were generated. Ribozyme cleavage was demonstrated in vitro, which can be enhanced by facilitator RNA molecules. In tissue culture cells, these two ribozymes can inhibit the expression of a cotransfected reporter gene containing HCV RNA target sequences. Furthermore,(More)
CCR-5 is a major cellular coreceptor for R5 strains of HIV-1. Individuals carrying a homozygous 32-base-pair deletion in this gene are apparently healthy and are relatively resistant to HIV-1 infection. Since CCR5 appears to be dispensable for the host, but important for initial HIV-1 infection, CCR5 mRNA is an excellent therapeutic target for inhibiting(More)
A small lipid-containing bacteriophage PRD1 specifies its own DNA polymerase that utilizes terminal protein as a primer for DNA synthesis. The PRD1 DNA polymerase gene has been sequenced, and its amino acid sequence has been deduced. This protein-primed DNA polymerase consists of 553 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 63,300. Thus, it(More)
We have developed a library of hairpin ribozyme genes that can be delivered and expressed in mammalian cells with the purpose of identifying genes involved in a specific phenotype. By applying the appropriate phenotypic selection criteria in tissue culture, we can enrich for ribozymes that knock down expression of an unknown gene or genes in a particular(More)
Efforts to develop a vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are complicated by resistance of virus to neutralization. The neutralization resistance phenotype of HIV-1 has been linked to high infectivity. We studied the mechanisms determining this phenotype using clones of the T-cell-line-adapted (TCLA) MN strain (MN-TCLA) and the(More)
Successful treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection may ultimately require targeting of hematopoietic stem cells. Here we used retroviral vectors carrying the ribozyme gene to transduce CD34+ cells from human fetal cord blood. Transduction and ribozyme expression had no apparent adverse effect on cell differentiation and/or proliferation. The(More)