M. C. Leavitt

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The nucleotide sequence of Bacillus phage Nf gene E has been determined. Gene E codes for phage terminal protein which is the primer necessary for the initiation of DNA replication. The deduced amino acid sequence of Nf terminal protein is approximately 66% homologous with the terminal proteins of Bacillus phages PZA and luminal diameter 29, and shows(More)
A small lipid-containing bacteriophage PRD1 specifies its own DNA polymerase that utilizes terminal protein as a primer for DNA synthesis. The PRD1 DNA polymerase gene has been sequenced, and its amino acid sequence has been deduced. This protein-primed DNA polymerase consists of 553 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 63,300. Thus, it(More)
We have developed a library of hairpin ribozyme genes that can be delivered and expressed in mammalian cells with the purpose of identifying genes involved in a specific phenotype. By applying the appropriate phenotypic selection criteria in tissue culture, we can enrich for ribozymes that knock down expression of an unknown gene or genes in a particular(More)
Efforts to develop a vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are complicated by resistance of virus to neutralization. The neutralization resistance phenotype of HIV-1 has been linked to high infectivity. We studied the mechanisms determining this phenotype using clones of the T-cell-line-adapted (TCLA) MN strain (MN-TCLA) and the(More)
We and others have shown previously that hairpin ribozyme genes, when stably expressed in cells, can reduce the steady-state levels of target mRNA and their cognate proteins. Despite this capability, ribozymes have not been as widely used in knockdown experiments as one might expect, probably because specific rules governing the selection of ribozymes that(More)
Successful treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection may ultimately require targeting of hematopoietic stem cells. Here we used retroviral vectors carrying the ribozyme gene to transduce CD34+ cells from human fetal cord blood. Transduction and ribozyme expression had no apparent adverse effect on cell differentiation and/or proliferation. The(More)
We have constructed a hairpin ribozyme targeted to cleave a conserved sequence in the HIV-1 pol gene. The ribozyme was modified to include a structure-stabilizing tetraloop. In vitro studies revealed a cleavage efficiency unprecedented for hairpin ribozymes (Kcat/Km = 75 min-1 microM-1). Stable retroviral vector transduction of this ribozyme gene in T-cell(More)
Human CD4+ T cells (Molt-4) were transduced with retroviral vectors containing a hairpin ribozyme which targets the rev/env coding region of HIV-1 RNA (HXB2: 8629-8644). This target sequence is conserved among many HIV-1 clones, including the prototype virus HXB2, but the infectious clone SF2 contains a single nucleotide substitution at the cleavage site(More)
Preparations for a phase I trial of ex vivo, anti-HIV ribozyme gene therapy have included optimization of transduction and expansion of CD4+ lymphocytes from HIV-1 infected donors, using reagents suitable for production of cell products for human infusion. We also determined whether transduction by the ribozyme vector would inhibit replication and spread of(More)