Learn More
The inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 acts as an endogenous pyrogen in organisms affected by infectious diseases and has been shown to influence the activity of the central nervous system. Using in situ hybridization histochemistry, we have examined the cellular source of interleukin-1 beta in rat brain after peripheral stimulation with the bacterial(More)
Induction of tumor necrosis factor alpha was studied in the brain of rats after focal cerebral ischaemia by occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery. Using a specific antisense riboprobe for in situ hybridization histochemistry, cells positive for tumor necrosis factor alpha messenger RNA were detected within 30 min in the brain regions known to be(More)
The expression of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) mRNA in the brain in response to cerebral ischaemia in rats was examined using in situ hybridization histochemistry. Focal cerebral ischaemia was induced in spontaneously hypertensive rats by permanent occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery (MCAO). Whereas no IL-1 beta mRNA could be detected in(More)
Increasing evidence indicates a key role of chemoattractant cytokines in the accumulation of leukocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) during the course of inflammatory processes. Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1/JE), a member of the beta-chemokine (C-C chemokine) family, functions as a potent chemoattractant and activator for monocytes. We have(More)
We have investigated the functional expression of the beta-chemokine receptors CCR1 to 5 in cultured rat microglia. RT-PCR analysis revealed constitutive expression of CCR1, CCR2 and CCR5 mRNA. The beta-chemokines MCP-1 (1-30 nM) as well as RANTES and MIP-1alpha (100-1000 nM) evoked calcium transients in control and LPS-treated microglia. Whereas, the(More)
Using immunocytochemistry with monoclonal antibodies against surface immunomolecules and Griffonia simplicifolia lectin histochemistry, the microglial cell reaction in rat brain was studied after intravenous injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Activation of microglial cells throughout the brain became apparent within hours and peaked at 8-24 h following(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV)-associated dementia complex (ADC) is a neuroimmunological disorder fueled by viral replication in mononuclear phagocytes (MP) (brain macrophages and microglia). The elucidation of MP inflammatory factors involved in neurological dysfunction is pivotal for unraveling pathogenic mechanisms and in developing new(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by increases in amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptides, neurofibrillary tangles, oxidative stress and cholinergic deficits. However, the selectivity of these deficits and their relation with the Abeta pathology or oxidative stress remain unclear. We therefore investigated amyloidosis-related changes in acetylcholine (ACh)(More)
1. We have investigated the effects of the phosphodiesterase (PDE) type IV inhibitor rolipram and of the glucocorticoid methylprednisolone on the induction of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) mRNA and protein in brains of rats after peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). 2. After intravenous administration of LPS, a similar(More)
The high-affinity receptors for interleukin-3 (IL-3), GM-CSF, and IL-5 are composed of a ligand binding (alpha-) and a transducing (beta-) subunit. Two distinct transducing subunits (clones AIC2A and AIC2B) have been cloned from mouse, whereas in humans, only one (common) beta-subunit (beta c) has been found. A PCR-based cloning strategy was used to obtain(More)