M. Bryan Wheeler

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beta cells sense glucose through its metabolism and the resulting increase in ATP, which subsequently stimulates insulin secretion. Uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) mediates mitochondrial proton leak, decreasing ATP production. In the present study, we assessed UCP2's role in regulating insulin secretion. UCP2-deficient mice had higher islet ATP levels and(More)
OBJECTIVE Zinc ions are essential for the formation of hexameric insulin and hormone crystallization. A nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism rs13266634 in the SLC30A8 gene, encoding the secretory granule zinc transporter ZnT8, is associated with type 2 diabetes. We describe the effects of deleting the ZnT8 gene in mice and explore the action of the(More)
The clonal isolation of putative adult pancreatic precursors has been an elusive goal of researchers seeking to develop cell replacement strategies for diabetes. We report the clonal identification of multipotent precursor cells from the adult mouse pancreas. The application of a serum-free, colony-forming assay to pancreatic cells enabled the(More)
The generation of insulin-producing β-cells from human pluripotent stem cells is dependent on efficient endoderm induction and appropriate patterning and specification of this germ layer to a pancreatic fate. In this study, we elucidated the temporal requirements for TGFβ family members and canonical WNT signaling at these developmental stages and show that(More)
Zinc is highly concentrated in pancreatic beta cells, is critical for normal insulin storage and may regulate glucagon secretion from alpha cells. Zinc transport family member 8 (ZnT8) is a zinc efflux transporter that is highly abundant in beta cells. Polymorphisms of ZnT8 (also known as SLC30A8) gene in man are associated with increased risk of type 2(More)
In pancreatic beta-cells, the predominant voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel (Ca(V)1.2) and K(+) channel (K(V)2.1) are directly coupled to SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein (SNAP) receptor) proteins. These SNARE proteins modulate channel expression and gating and closely associate these channels with the insulin secretory(More)
Insulin secretion from pancreatic islet beta cells is acutely regulated by a complex interplay of metabolic and electrogenic events. The electrogenic mechanism regulating insulin secretion from beta cells is commonly referred to as the ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channel dependent pathway. Briefly, an increase in ATP and, perhaps more importantly, a decrease in(More)
The second messenger cAMP exerts powerful stimulatory effects on Ca(2+) signaling and insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells. Previous studies of beta-cells focused on protein kinase A (PKA) as a downstream effector of cAMP action. However, it is now apparent that cAMP also exerts its effects by binding to cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange(More)
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) elicits a glucose-dependent insulin secretory effect via elevation of cAMP and activation of protein kinase A (PKA). GLP-1-mediated closure of ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels is involved in this process, although the mechanism of action of PKA on the K(ATP) channels is not fully understood. K(ATP) channel currents(More)
OBJECTIVE An important mechanism in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes in obese individuals is elevation of plasma free fatty acids (FFAs), which induce insulin resistance and chronically decrease beta-cell function and mass. Our objective was to investigate the role of oxidative stress in FFA-induced decrease in beta-cell function. RESEARCH DESIGN AND(More)