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The second messenger cAMP exerts powerful stimulatory effects on Ca(2+) signaling and insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells. Previous studies of beta-cells focused on protein kinase A (PKA) as a downstream effector of cAMP action. However, it is now apparent that cAMP also exerts its effects by binding to cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange(More)
beta cells sense glucose through its metabolism and the resulting increase in ATP, which subsequently stimulates insulin secretion. Uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) mediates mitochondrial proton leak, decreasing ATP production. In the present study, we assessed UCP2's role in regulating insulin secretion. UCP2-deficient mice had higher islet ATP levels and(More)
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) elicits a glucose-dependent insulin secretory effect via elevation of cAMP and activation of protein kinase A (PKA). GLP-1-mediated closure of ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels is involved in this process, although the mechanism of action of PKA on the K(ATP) channels is not fully understood. K(ATP) channel currents(More)
OBJECTIVE Zinc ions are essential for the formation of hexameric insulin and hormone crystallization. A nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism rs13266634 in the SLC30A8 gene, encoding the secretory granule zinc transporter ZnT8, is associated with type 2 diabetes. We describe the effects of deleting the ZnT8 gene in mice and explore the action of the(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Using a novel directed differentiation protocol, we recently generated up to 25% insulin-producing cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) (insulin(+) cells). At this juncture, it was important to functionally and molecularly characterise these hESC-derived insulin(+) cells and identify key differences and similarities between them and(More)
The proglucagon gene encodes several hormones that have key roles in the regulation of metabolism. In particular, glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), a potent stimulus of insulin secretion, is being developed as a therapy for the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. To define structural moieties of the molecule that convey its insulinotropic(More)
The Lkb1 tumor suppressor exerts its biological effects through phosphorylation and consequent activation of the AMP kinase (AMPK) family. Extensive genetic and biochemical evidence supports a role for Lkb1 in cell cycle arrest, establishment of cell polarity, and cellular energy metabolism. However, the role of Lkb1 and the AMPK family in beta cell(More)
BACKGROUND The pancreatic beta cell is unique in its response to nutrient by increased fuel oxidation. Recent studies have demonstrated that oxygen consumption rate (OCR) may be a valuable predictor of islet quality and long term nutrient responsiveness. To date, high-throughput and user-friendly assays for islet respiration are lacking. The aim of this(More)
The physiological effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are of immense interest because of the potential clinical relevance of this peptide. Produced in intestinal L-cells through posttranslational processing of the proglucagon gene, GLP-1 is released from the gut in response to nutrient ingestion. Peripherally, GLP-1 is known to affect gut motility,(More)
The generation of insulin-producing β-cells from human pluripotent stem cells is dependent on efficient endoderm induction and appropriate patterning and specification of this germ layer to a pancreatic fate. In this study, we elucidated the temporal requirements for TGFβ family members and canonical WNT signaling at these developmental stages and show that(More)