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BACKGROUND The pancreatic beta cell is unique in its response to nutrient by increased fuel oxidation. Recent studies have demonstrated that oxygen consumption rate (OCR) may be a valuable predictor of islet quality and long term nutrient responsiveness. To date, high-throughput and user-friendly assays for islet respiration are lacking. The aim of this(More)
beta cells sense glucose through its metabolism and the resulting increase in ATP, which subsequently stimulates insulin secretion. Uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) mediates mitochondrial proton leak, decreasing ATP production. In the present study, we assessed UCP2's role in regulating insulin secretion. UCP2-deficient mice had higher islet ATP levels and(More)
The physiological effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are of immense interest because of the potential clinical relevance of this peptide. Produced in intestinal L-cells through posttranslational processing of the proglucagon gene, GLP-1 is released from the gut in response to nutrient ingestion. Peripherally, GLP-1 is known to affect gut motility,(More)
OBJECTIVE Zinc ions are essential for the formation of hexameric insulin and hormone crystallization. A nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism rs13266634 in the SLC30A8 gene, encoding the secretory granule zinc transporter ZnT8, is associated with type 2 diabetes. We describe the effects of deleting the ZnT8 gene in mice and explore the action of the(More)
GIP (Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide) is an important regulator of insulin secretion. The effects of truncated forms of the peptide, GIP(10-30), GIP(6-30amide) and GIP(7-30), on binding of 125I-GIP(1-42) to GIP receptors in transfected CHO-KI cells, and on cyclic AMP responses to GIP(1-42), have been studied with a view to defining further the(More)
OBJECTIVE The inability of pancreatic beta-cells to appropriately respond to glucose and secrete insulin are primary defects associated with beta-cell failure in type 2 diabetes. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated as a key factor in the development of type 2 diabetes; however, a link between mitochondrial dysfunction and defective insulin(More)
Insulin secretion is initiated by ionic events involving membrane depolarization and Ca(2+) entry, whereas exocytic SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) proteins mediate exocytosis itself. In the present study, we characterize the interaction of the SNARE protein SNAP-25 (synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa)(More)
Extraction of the brain-i.e. cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem-from T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance images is an important initial step in neuroimage analysis. Although automatic algorithms are available, their inconsistent handling of the cortical mantle often requires manual interaction, thereby reducing their effectiveness. This paper(More)
It is well established that the gene encoding the hormone secretin is expressed in a specific enteroendocrine cell, the S cell. We now show that the secretin gene is transiently expressed in insulin-producing B cells of the developing pancreatic islets in addition to the intestine. Furthermore, secretin is produced by most established islet cell lines. In(More)
OBJECTIVE The role of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) in pancreatic β-cells is highly debated, partly because of the broad tissue distribution of UCP2 and thus limitations of whole-body UCP2 knockout mouse models. To investigate the function of UCP2 in the β-cell, β-cell-specific UCP2 knockout mice (UCP2BKO) were generated and characterized. RESEARCH DESIGN(More)