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The second messenger cAMP exerts powerful stimulatory effects on Ca(2+) signaling and insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells. Previous studies of beta-cells focused on protein kinase A (PKA) as a downstream effector of cAMP action. However, it is now apparent that cAMP also exerts its effects by binding to cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange(More)
beta cells sense glucose through its metabolism and the resulting increase in ATP, which subsequently stimulates insulin secretion. Uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) mediates mitochondrial proton leak, decreasing ATP production. In the present study, we assessed UCP2's role in regulating insulin secretion. UCP2-deficient mice had higher islet ATP levels and(More)
BACKGROUND The pancreatic beta cell is unique in its response to nutrient by increased fuel oxidation. Recent studies have demonstrated that oxygen consumption rate (OCR) may be a valuable predictor of islet quality and long term nutrient responsiveness. To date, high-throughput and user-friendly assays for islet respiration are lacking. The aim of this(More)
The physiological effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are of immense interest because of the potential clinical relevance of this peptide. Produced in intestinal L-cells through posttranslational processing of the proglucagon gene, GLP-1 is released from the gut in response to nutrient ingestion. Peripherally, GLP-1 is known to affect gut motility,(More)
The generation of insulin-producing β-cells from human pluripotent stem cells is dependent on efficient endoderm induction and appropriate patterning and specification of this germ layer to a pancreatic fate. In this study, we elucidated the temporal requirements for TGFβ family members and canonical WNT signaling at these developmental stages and show that(More)
The clonal isolation of putative adult pancreatic precursors has been an elusive goal of researchers seeking to develop cell replacement strategies for diabetes. We report the clonal identification of multipotent precursor cells from the adult mouse pancreas. The application of a serum-free, colony-forming assay to pancreatic cells enabled the(More)
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) elicits a glucose-dependent insulin secretory effect via elevation of cAMP and activation of protein kinase A (PKA). GLP-1-mediated closure of ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels is involved in this process, although the mechanism of action of PKA on the K(ATP) channels is not fully understood. K(ATP) channel currents(More)
The proglucagon gene encodes several hormones that have key roles in the regulation of metabolism. In particular, glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), a potent stimulus of insulin secretion, is being developed as a therapy for the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. To define structural moieties of the molecule that convey its insulinotropic(More)
In pancreatic beta-cells, the predominant voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel (Ca(V)1.2) and K(+) channel (K(V)2.1) are directly coupled to SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein (SNAP) receptor) proteins. These SNARE proteins modulate channel expression and gating and closely associate these channels with the insulin secretory(More)
In pancreatic beta-cells, glucose metabolism signals insulin secretion by altering the cellular array of messenger molecules. ATP is particularly important, given its role in regulating cation channel activity, exocytosis, and events dependent upon its hydrolysis. Uncoupling protein (UCP)-2 is proposed to catalyze a mitochondrial inner-membrane H(+) leak(More)