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Kinetochores are megadalton-sized protein complexes that mediate chromosome-microtubule interactions in eukaryotes. How kinetochore assembly is triggered specifically on centromeric chromatin is poorly understood. Here we use biochemical reconstitution experiments alongside genetic and structural analysis to delineate the contributions of(More)
The correct organization of single subunits of multi-protein machines in a three dimensional context is critical for their functionality. Type III secretion systems (T3SS) are molecular machines with the capacity to deliver bacterial effector proteins into host cells and are fundamental for the biology of many pathogenic or symbiotic bacteria. A central(More)
We describe a general approach for refining protein structure models on the basis of cryo-electron microscopy maps with near-atomic resolution. The method integrates Monte Carlo sampling with local density-guided optimization, Rosetta all-atom refinement and real-space B-factor fitting. In tests on experimental maps of three different systems with 4.5-Å(More)
An analog electronic neuron for modeling neuronal networks and for teaching purposes is presented. The circuitry represents a new approach, since ionic channels are all modeled by fast relay switches in combination with resistors. Thus, the synapse design includes nonlinear PSP superposition and reversal potentials. The spike is modeled with Na+ and K+(More)
High cell densities and high viability are critical quality attributes for mammalian bioprocesses. Determination of living and dead cell numbers is nowadays routinely performed by automated image-based cell analyzers or flow cytometry. However, complete lysis of cells is usually neglected by these devices. We present a novel method for robust quantification(More)
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, but highly malignant tumor of the skin. In case of systemic disease, possible therapeutic options include irradiation or chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the flavonoid resveratrol enhances the effect of radiotherapy or chemotherapy in MCC cell lines. The two MCC cell lines MCC13 and MCC26(More)
Certain small networks of spiking interneurons are shown to produce strong fluctuations when modeled with neuromimes. The reasons for these fluctuations are demonstrated and discussed. When one or more of the neuromimes in the circuit were replaced by non-spiking neuromimes, the fluctuations were strongly reduced or disappeared completely. We assume that(More)
The analysis of migrates from the internal coatings of food cans showed that the present regulation is not sufficient to ensure safety of food contact polymers. The migrates often consist of complex mixtures of reaction products and impurities, and their harmlessness cannot be deduced from the use of non-toxic starting substances compiled in positive lists.(More)
Bacterial type III protein secretion systems inject effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells in order to promote survival and colonization of Gram-negative pathogens and symbionts. Secretion across the bacterial cell envelope and injection into host cells is facilitated by a so-called injectisome. Its small hydrophobic export apparatus components SpaP(More)
Understanding process parameter interactions and their effects on mammalian cell cultivations is an essential requirement for robust process scale-up. Furthermore, knowledge of the relationship between the process parameters and the product critical quality attributes (CQAs) is necessary to satisfy quality by design guidelines. So far, mainly the effect of(More)