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Programmed cell death (PCD) is a major component of normal development, preservation of tissue homeostasis, and elimination of damaged cells. Many studies have subdivided PCD into the three categories of apoptosis, autophagy, and necrosis based on criteria such as morphological alterations, initiating death signal, or the implication of caspases. However,(More)
Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) can activate purinergic receptors of the plasma membrane and modulate multiple cellular functions. We report that ATP is released from HIV-1 target cells through pannexin-1 channels upon interaction between the HIV-1 envelope protein and specific target cell receptors. Extracellular ATP then acts on purinergic(More)
Previously it has been shown that significantly more 2-cell mouse embryos reach the blastocyst stage when cultured in medium supplemented with taurine. In this study, in-vitro fertilized zygotes from a hybrid mouse strain were used to examine the temporal effects of 10 mM taurine on embryonic development in vitro during the preimplantation period. Taurine(More)
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are innate sensors of viral infections and important mediators of antiviral innate immunity through their ability to produce large amounts of IFN-α. Moreover, Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) and 9 (TLR9) ligands, such as HIV and CpG respectively, turn pDCs into TRAIL-expressing killer pDCs able to lyse HIV-infected CD4+ T(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the sexual and reproductive health priorities of women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and to allow the values and preferences of such women to be considered in the development of new guidelines. METHODS A core team created a global reference group of 14 women living with HIV and together they developed a global(More)
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