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The genetic diversity of a vesicular stomatitis virus population was analysed by RT-PCR, cloning and sequencing of two approximately 500 nucleotide regions of the virus genome. PCR amplifications were performed in parallel experiments with both Taq and Pfu DNA polymerases, and important differences were observed. Between 10 and 22 mutations were detected(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects about 3% of the human population. Phylogenetic analyses have grouped its variants into six major genotypes, which have a star-like distribution and several minor subtypes. The most abundant genotype in Europe is the so-called genotype 1, with two prevalent subtypes, 1a and 1b. In order to explain the higher(More)
The application of Cellular Automata to the problem of robot path planning is presented. It is shown that a Cellular Automata allows the efficient computation of an optimal collision free path from an initial to a goal configuration on a physical space cluttered with obstacles. The cellular space represents a discrete version of the workspace for a mobile(More)
BACKGROUND No recognized risk factors can be identified in 10-40% of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients suggesting that the modes of transmission involved could be underestimated or unidentified. Invasive diagnostic procedures, such as endoscopy, have been considered as a potential HCV transmission route; although the actual extent of transmission in(More)
We analyzed a hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission case in the hemodialysis unit of a private clinic by sequencing two genome regions of virus isolates from a number of patients attending this unit and some external controls. The analysis of 337 nucleotides (nt) in the NS5B region did not provide enough resolution to ascertain which patients were actually(More)
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), a common disease caused by enteroviruses (EVs), usually affects children. Clustered and sporadic HFMD cases, followed by onychomadesis (nail shedding), occurred during summer and fall 2008 in Valencia, Spain. Fecal samples from onychomadesis patients, who did or did not have previous HFMD, and from healthy children(More)
BACKGROUND Current treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has limited efficacy -especially among genotype 1 infected patients-, is costly, and involves severe side effects. Thus, predicting non-response is of major interest for both patient wellbeing and health care expense. At present, treatment cannot be individualized on the basis of any(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatitis C virus isolates have been classified into six main genotypes and a variable number of subtypes within each genotype, mainly based on phylogenetic analysis. Analyses of the genetic relationship among genotypes and subtypes are more reliable when complete genome sequences (or at least the full coding region) are used; however, so far 31(More)
BACKGROUND Genetic variability in viral populations is usually estimated by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods in which the relative abundance of each amplicon is assumed to be proportional to the frequency of the corresponding template in the initial sample. Although bias in template-to-product ratios has been described before, its(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the leading cause of chronic liver disease and is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma. However, there have been few studies on the distribution and genetic diversity of HCV isolates in non-developed countries. Here, the complete genome sequence of an HCV genotype 1 isolate from Equatorial Guinea is reported, the first(More)