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The architectural features of twenty different muscles (18 intrinsics and 2 thumb extrinsics, n = 180 total muscles) were studied. Muscle length, mass, fiber pennation angle, fiber length, and sarcomere length were determined. From these values, physiologic cross-sectional area and fiber length/muscle length ratio were calculated. Intrinsic muscle lengths(More)
The architectural features of twenty-one different forearm muscles (n = 154 total muscles) were studied. Muscles included the extensor digitorum communis to the index, middle, ring, and small fingers, the extensor digit quinti, the extensor indicis proprius, the extensor pollicis longus, the flexor digitorum superficialis, the flexor digitorum profundus,(More)
The architectural features of 25 wrist flexor and extensor muscles were studied. Muscles included the flexor carpi ulnaris, the flexor carpi radialis, the extensor carpi ulnaris, the extensor capri radialis brevis, and the extensor carpi radialis longus. Muscle length, mass, fiber pennation angle, fiber length, and sarcomere length (by use of laser(More)
The extensor medii proprius is a muscle analogous to the extensor indicis proprius in that it has a similar origin, but inserts into the long finger. The extensor indicis et medii communis muscle is an extensor indicis proprius muscle that splits to insert into both the index and long fingers. The extensor tendons to the fingers were dissected in 58 adult(More)
Twenty fresh cadaver extremities were dissected to delineate and quantify the course of the superficial branch of the radial nerve. This branch bifurcated from the radial nerve at the level of the lateral humeral epicondyle in eight specimens, and in all specimens the bifurcation was no more than 2.1 cm from the lateral epicondyle. It continued distally,(More)
The subcutaneous (sensory) portion of the superficial peroneal nerve was dissected in 25 cadaver lower limbs under loupe magnification. Three distinct branching pattern types were noted. Type A (72%) consisted of a pattern where the nerve penetrated the crural fascia to become subcutaneous at an average distance of 12.3 cm proximal to the ankle joint, then(More)
Intrinsic and extrinsic hand muscles power finger extension. These two muscle groups have different anatomy that allows complimentary function at the interphalangeal joints and opposing function at the metacarpophalangeal joints. Independent extension of each finger is not possible because of anatomic constraints including the juncturae tendinum and(More)
Operative procedures and traumatic injuries of the lateral foot and ankle place the sural nerve and its branches at risk. Anatomic studies quantifying the course of this nerve are sparse. In this study, 17 cadaver specimens were dissected to clarify its course and branching patterns. Despite multiple variations of the nerve and its branches, description of(More)
The objectives of this study were 1) to determine the degree to which soleus motoneurons find their appropriate target following crush and transection injuries to the sciatic nerve, and 2) to determine whether repair of a transected nerve with a silicone tube leads to greater specificity of reinnervation and recovery of muscle function than the standard(More)
To determine the role of the long extensors and soft tissues in the extension and interaction of the fingers, we applied traction to the extensors and measured the angles of the finger joints. The tendons, juncturae tendinum and intertendinous fascia, and the web between the fingers were sequentially sectioned, and the effects on the joints were again(More)