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In the literature, frost hardiness (FH) studies in trees have often been restricted to one organ (buds, leaves, needles or twigs). To extend our knowledge and gain a unified view, FH differences between organs and tissues or throughout the life of the tree have to be characterized in relation to physiological changes. In this study, different organs and(More)
Bud break pattern is a key determinant of tree architecture. The mechanisms leading to the precedence of certain buds over the others are not yet fully explained, but the availability of soluble sugars may play a significant role, especially those in the xylem sap at the onset of the growing period. Here, we measured carbon availability in the different(More)
The responses of flowering phenology to temperature increases in temperate fruit trees have rarely been investigated in contrasting climatic regions. This is an appropriate framework for highlighting varying responses to diverse warming contexts, which would potentially combine chill accumulation (CA) declines and heat accumulation (HA) increases. To(More)
This study is an important contribution to understanding of the dormancy dynamics of apple buds grown in contrasting climates, highlighting the main factors possibly involved in their control and the key role of rehydration. The aim of this study was to compare the dormancy dynamics and the physiological status of vegetative and floral buds of apple(More)
Freeze-thaw cycles induce major hydraulic changes due to liquid-to-ice transition within tree stems. The very low water potential at the ice-liquid interface is crucial as it may cause lysis of living cells as well as water fluxes and embolism in sap conduits, which impacts whole tree-water relations. We investigated water fluxes induced by ice formation(More)
In apple, the overwintering bud appears hydraulically isolated from the parent stem. Spring budburst seems more related to a whole-shoot effect than to the water status of the individual bud during winter dormancy. The effects of winter temperatures, i.e., during dormancy, on shoot architecture are well known with budburst preferentially in the distal or(More)
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