Learn More
Predation can cause morphological divergence among populations, while ontogeny and sex often determine much of morphological diversity among individuals. We used geometric morphometrics to characterize body shape in the livebearing fish Brachyrhaphis rhabdophora to test for interactions between these three major shape-determining factors. We assessed shape(More)
Natural selection often results in profound differences in body shape among populations from divergent selective environments. Predation is a well-studied driver of divergence, with predators having a strong effect on the evolution of prey body shape, especially for traits related to escape behavior. Comparative studies, both at the population level and(More)
We evaluate the cost-of-reproduction hypothesis in the burying beetle Nicrophorus orbicollis and examine how the importance of this trade-off changes as females age (i.e., the terminal-investment hypothesis). These beetles breed on small vertebrate carcasses, which serve as a food resource for them and their offspring. Consistent with the(More)
ii Foreword In 2008, the Software Assurance Forum for Excellence in Code (SAFECode) published the first version of this report in an effort to help others in the industry initiate or improve their own software assurance programs and encourage the industry-wide adoption of what we believe to be the most fundamental secure development methods. This work(More)
Intraspecific morphological variation in fish is typically associated with sexual dimorphism, or one of three common environmental gradients: variation in intensity of predation, variation in water velocity, or variation in feeding niche. The preponderance of examples of environment-associated morphological variation within fish species has been documented(More)
Native fishes worldwide have declined as a consequence of habitat loss and degradation and introduction of non-native species. In response to these declines, river restoration projects have been initiated to enhance habitat and remove introduced fishes; however, non-native fish removal is not always logistically feasible or socially acceptable.(More)
The cost of reproduction theory posits that there are trade-offs between current and future reproduction because resources that are allocated to current offspring cannot be used for future reproductive opportunities. Two adaptive reproductive strategies have been hypothesized to offset the costs of reproduction and maximize lifetime fitness. The terminal(More)
We examined the multivariate life-history trajectories of age 0 and age 1 female Gambusia affinis to determine relative effects of age-based and environment-based cues on reproductive investment. Age 0 females decreased reproductive investment prior to the onset of fall and winter months, while age 1 females increased reproductive investment as the summer(More)
Molecular genetic data suggest that June sucker (Chasmistes liorus) is only shallowly diverged from the co-occurring but phenotypically distinct Utah sucker (Catostomus ardens) in Utah Lake. Phenotypes representing both extreme morphologies (June sucker and Utah sucker) are observed in the small wild population, but relatively large numbers of intermediate(More)
Predator community composition can alter habitat quality for prey by changing the strength and direction of consumptive effects. Whether predator community composition also alters prey density via nonconsumptive effects during habitat selection is not well known, but is important for understanding how changes to predator communities will alter prey(More)