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In an open-label study, glycine was administered orally (10.8 g/day in three divided doses) to six chronically psychotic patients, as an adjunct to conventional neuroleptic therapy, for periods extending from 4 days to 8 weeks. Glycine was administered in an effort to facilitate endogenous glutamatergic transmission at the level of the N-methyl-D-aspartate(More)
Glutamate and related amino acids were determined in 53 discrete brain areas of 3- and 29-month-old male Fischer 344 rats microdissected with the punch technique. The levels of amino acids showed high regional variation - the ratio of the highest to lowest level was 9 for aspartate, 5 for glutamate, 6 for glutamine, and 21 for GABA. Several areas were found(More)
We studied the effect of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) on dopamine release and the effect of long-term acetyl-L-carnitine treatment on age-related changes in striatal dopamine receptors and brain amino acid levels. In striatal tissue that had been incubated with [3H]dopamine, acetyl-L-carnitine increased the release of [3H]dopamine evoked by electrical(More)
Taurine (Tau) and the small neutral amino acids glycine (Gly), serine (Ser), threonine (Thr), and alanine (Ala) were measured in 53 brain areas of 3- and 29-month-old male Fisher 344 rats. The ratio of highest to lowest level was 34 for Tau, 9.1 for Thr, 7.6 for Gly and Ser, and 6.5 for Ala. The heterogeneity was found in numerous areas; for example, Tau(More)
The regional distribution of seven amino acids thought to have inhibitory neurotransmitter or neurotransmitter precursor function--GABA, glycine, taurine, serine, threonine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine--was determined in 52 discrete areas from brain of adult and old humans. Significant heterogeneity was found, with 3- to 16-fold differences in levels in the(More)
We assayed calpain activity in 27 human brain regions from adult (43-65 years of age) and aged (66-83 years of age) postmortem tissue samples. Calpain I (microM Ca-requiring) activity was 10% or less of the total activity; it was below detectable levels in a number of areas, and so data are are expressed as total (microM + mM Ca-dependent) calpain activity.(More)
We measured the activity of cathepsin D, the major cerebral protease, in 50 separate areas of the central nervous system of adult and aged humans, using hemoglobin as the substrate. The activity showed significant regional heterogeneity, with average differences of 50-100% between the lower and higher level areas, and a more than threefold difference(More)
The effects of nicotine on brain protein metabolism and on the properties of the nicotine binding site were investigated in newborn animals exposed to nicotine during gestation. Brain protein synthesis rates measured in vivo were lower by 18% in newborn of treated animals. Protein degradation rates measured in vitro in the presence of nicotine were lower by(More)
In vivo effects of chronic lithium administration on dopaminergic and serotonergic receptor binding were studied in the striatum and cerebral cortex of the rat. [3H]Domperidone was used as the ligand for the dopaminergic receptor, and [3H]ketanserin for the serotonergic system. Long-term ingestion of lithium (2-3 months) resulted in high levels of lithium(More)