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The importance of macrostructural white matter changes, including white matter lesions and atrophy, in intact brain functioning is increasingly being recognized. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) enables measurement of the microstructural integrity of white matter. Loss of white matter integrity in aging has been reported, but whether this is inherent to the(More)
OBJECTIVE White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) detectable by magnetic resonance imaging are part of the spectrum of vascular injury associated with aging of the brain and are thought to reflect ischemic damage to the small deep cerebral vessels. WMHs are associated with an increased risk of cognitive and motor dysfunction, dementia, depression, and stroke.(More)
Identifying genetic variants influencing human brain structures may reveal new biological mechanisms underlying cognition and neuropsychiatric illness. The volume of the hippocampus is a biomarker of incipient Alzheimer's disease and is reduced in schizophrenia, major depression and mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Whereas many brain imaging phenotypes are(More)
We conducted a meta-analysis of Parkinson's disease genome-wide association studies using a common set of 7,893,274 variants across 13,708 cases and 95,282 controls. Twenty-six loci were identified as having genome-wide significant association; these and 6 additional previously reported loci were then tested in an independent set of 5,353 cases and 5,551(More)
We investigated how volumes of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) varied with age, sex, small vessel disease and cardiovascular risk factors in the Rotterdam Scan Study. Participants (n=490; 60-90 years) were non-demented and 51.0% had hypertension, 4.9% had diabetes mellitus, 17.8% were current smoker and 54.0% were former(More)
CONTEXT The role of macrostructural white matter changes, such as atrophy and white matter lesions, in cognitive decline is increasingly being recognized. However, in the elderly population, these macrostructural changes do not account for all variability in cognition. Measures reflecting white matter microstructural integrity may provide additional(More)
Blood pressure is a heritable trait influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (≥140 mm Hg systolic blood pressure or  ≥90 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure). Even small increments in blood pressure are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. This(More)
Cortical thickness is considered a potentially relevant marker for neurodegenerative diseases. However, the relationship of demographic and vascular risk factors with cortical thickness remains unclear. In a population-based sample of 1022 non-demented elderly persons (mean age 68.4±7.3 years), we examined aging effects on global and lobar cortical(More)
A fully automated brain tissue segmentation method is optimized and extended with white matter lesion segmentation. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) are segmented by an atlas-based k-nearest neighbor classifier on multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging data. This classifier is trained by registering brain atlases to the(More)