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Some cases of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are caused by mutations in the gene encoding cytosolic, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1). We report here that rats that express a human SOD1 transgene with two different ALS-associated mutations (G93A and H46R) develop striking motor neuron degeneration and paralysis. As in the human disease(More)
The LET-RBE spectra for cell killing for cultured mammalian cells exposed to accelerated heavy ions were investigated to design a spread-out Bragg peak beam for cancer therapy at HIMAC, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, prior to clinical trials. Cells that originated from a human salivary gland tumor (HSG cells) as well as V79 and T1 cells(More)
The oncogene p3k, coding for a constitutively active form of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), strongly activates myogenic differentiation. Inhibition of endogenous PI 3-kinase activity with the specific inhibitor LY294002, or with dominant-negative mutants of PI 3-kinase, interferes with myotube formation and with the expression of(More)
Dysferlin is a surface membrane protein in skeletal muscle whose deficiency causes distal and proximal, recessively inherited, forms of muscular dystrophy designated Miyoshi myopathy (MM) and limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B (LGMD2B), respectively. The function of dysferlin is not defined. Caveolin-3 is another skeletal muscle membrane protein which(More)
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) is a signaling molecule that controls numerous cellular properties and activities. The oncogene v-p3k is a homolog of the gene coding for the catalytic subunit of PI 3-kinase, p110alpha. P3k induces transformation of cells in culture, formation of hemangiosarcomas in young chickens, and myogenic differentiation in(More)
The oncoproteins P3k (homolog of the catalytic subunit of class IA phosphoinositide 3-kinase) and Akt (protein kinase B) induce oncogenic transformation of chicken embryo fibroblasts. The transformed cells show constitutive phosphorylation of the positive regulator of translation p70S6 kinase (S6K) and of the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-BP1 binding(More)
Injury of endothelial cells has been assumed to be an initial trigger of the development of atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of endothelial cell death induced by hypoxia, which leads to oxidative stress. To study the relation between hypoxia-induced cell death and activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in a(More)
We treated 12 shoulders in ten patients with irreparable rotator-cuff tears by transfer of the latissimus dorsi. There were nine men and one woman. Their average age was 64.0 years and the average follow-up was 35.6 months (26 to 42). The results were excellent in four shoulders, good in four, fair in one, and poor in three. Active forward flexion improved(More)
1. The contribution of postural tonus to controlled locomotion elicited by the stimulation of mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) was studied in the acute precolicular-postmammillary decerebrate (mesencephalic) cat. 2. A microelectrode was placed in the unilateral MLR and another was placed systematically at 1-mm increments throughout the pons (H--4 to(More)