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BACKGROUND Chronic exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) may contribute to premature mortality, but few studies to date have addressed this topic. OBJECTIVES In this study we assessed the association between TRAP and mortality in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. METHODS We collected nitrogen dioxide samples over two seasons using duplicate two-sided(More)
This study investigated rats' preferences for using non-spatial and spatial cues in a missing-object recognition task. Rats were trained to find a sunflower seed under any one of four previously missing adjacent objects, the test array of a trial, after having found seeds under three of them in the 'study' array of that trial. On some trials the study and(More)
Six rats were trained to find a previously missing target or ‘jackpot’ object in a square array of four identical or different objects (the test segment of a trial) after first visiting and collecting sunflower seeds from under the other three objects (the study segment of a trial). During training, objects’ local positions within the array and their global(More)
The eddy-covariance (EC) micro-meteorological technique and the ecology-based biometric methods (BM) are the primary methodologies to quantify CO2 exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere (net ecosystem production, NEP) and its two components, ecosystem respiration and gross primary production. Here we show that EC and BM provide different(More)
Traumatic brain injury can cause persistent challenges including problems with learning and memory. Previous studies suggest that the activation of the cannabinoid 1 receptor after a traumatic brain injury could be beneficial. We tested the hypothesis that posttraumatic brain injury administration of a cannabinoid 1 receptor agonist can rescue deficits in(More)
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