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BACKGROUND In the mega-diverse insect order Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths; 165,000 described species), deeper relationships are little understood within the clade Ditrysia, to which 98% of the species belong. To begin addressing this problem, we tested the ability of five protein-coding nuclear genes (6.7 kb total), and character subsets therein, to(More)
More than half a million specimens of wild-caught Lepidoptera caterpillars have been reared for their parasitoids, identified, and DNA barcoded over a period of 34 years (and ongoing) from Area de Conservación de Guanacaste (ACG), northwestern Costa Rica. This provides the world's best location-based dataset for studying the taxonomy and host relationships(More)
In 1989, Terry Dickel, a member of the Lepidopterists' Society, was collecting moths on a sheet at night on Big Pine Key, Florida. He collected a very large phycitine he had never seen before in his extensive surveys of the Florida Keys. He contacted Dale Habeck at the University of Florida at Gainesville who recognized that it was the first U.S. record for(More)
Nomenclatural benchmarking is the periodic realignment of species names with species theories and is necessary for the accurate and uniform use of Linnaean binominals in the face of changing species limits. Gaining access to types, often for little more than a cursory examination by an expert, is a major bottleneck in the advance and availability of(More)
An annotated check list of Pyraloidea of North America north of Mexico is presented, including 861 Crambidae and 681 Pyralidae with 1542 total species. It includes all new species described, tropical species with new records in the United States, and species introduced from Europe and Asia since 1983. The Notes section provides the seminal citations, data(More)
The sugarcane borer moth, Diatraea saccharalis, is widespread throughout the Western Hemisphere, and is considered an introduced species in the southern United States. Although this moth has a wide distribution and is a pest of many crop plants including sugarcane, corn, sorghum and rice, it is considered one species. The objective was to investigate(More)
A Ph.D. dissertation completed by E.D. Cashatt in 1968 entitled "Revision of the Chrysauginae of North America" does not meet the criteria of publication so the new taxa described therein are not available per the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. In order to validate the taxa proposed in that document we formally describe and illustrate the(More)
A key to frequently intercepted lepidopterous larvae, designed for U. S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA, APHIS) identifiers at U.S. ports, was last revised in 1986. Since then many changes have occurred in the classification, nomenclature, and the nature of commodities being imported into the U.S. In this(More)
The homology and terminology of the sclerotized structures, specifically the uncus and gnathos, formed by the fused segments caudal to the ninth abdominal segment in males of Lepidoptera, specifically in the Pyraloidea, have been confused in the literature. Based on comparative morphology of sclerotized structures and musculature, the uncus, scaphium,(More)