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Wolfram syndrome is an autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, caused by nonautoimmune loss of beta cells, and neurological dysfunctions. We have previously shown that mutations in the Wolfram syndrome 1 (WFS1) gene cause Wolfram syndrome and that WFS1 has a protective function against ER stress. However, it(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated cell death has an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic diseases, including diabetes and neurodegeneration. Although proapoptotic programs activated by ER stress have been extensively studied, identification and characterization of antiapoptotic programs that counteract ER stress are currently incomplete.(More)
BACKGROUND Recently, several Genome Wide Association (GWA) studies in populations of European descent have identified and validated novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), highly associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Our aims were to validate these markers in other European and non-European populations, then to assess their combined effect in a large(More)
NIDDM is a common heterogeneous disorder, the genetic basis of which has yet to be determined. The sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) gene, now known to encode an integral component of the pancreatic beta-cell ATP-sensitive potassium channel, IKATP, was investigated as a logical candidate for this disorder. The two nucleotide-binding fold (NBF) regions of SUR are(More)
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels couple the cellular metabolic state to electrical activity and are a critical link between blood glucose concentration and pancreatic insulin secretion. A mutation in the second nucleotide-binding fold (NBF2) of the sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) of an individual diagnosed with persistent(More)
Conventional genetic analysis focuses on the genes that account for specific phenotypes, while traditional epidemiology is more concerned with the environmental causes and risk factors related to traits. Genetic epidemiology is an alliance of the 2 fields that focuses on both genetics, including allelic variants in different populations, and environment, in(More)
Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a subtype of type 2 diabetes that presents from the second decade and has an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. We have investigated the glucokinase gene, a candidate gene for diabetes, in two MODY pedigrees. In a large 5-generation pedigree (BX) with 15 diabetic members, use of a microsatellite(More)
The discovery of genes encoding maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) represents a milestone in the study of the genetics of complex diseases. The genes were revealed, in large part, through positional cloning and linkage analysis in families. The genes are relatively rare and have strong genotype-phenotype(More)
Steady-state levels of the major glucose transporter gene (GLUT-1) of the brain were evaluated under three conditions that induced chronic changes in plasma glucose and insulin in adult rats: (i) repeated injection of insulin for 5 days, resulting in plasma glucose levels of 60-70 mg/dl for at least 3 days; (ii) fasting for 3 days; and (iii) moderate(More)