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Numerous studies have demonstrated anatomical and functional neuroplasticity following spinal cord injury. One of the more notable examples is return of ipsilateral phrenic motoneuron and diaphragm activity which can be induced under terminal neurophysiological conditions after high cervical hemisection in the rat. More recently it has been shown that a(More)
Compromised blood-brain barrier permeability resulting from systemic inflammation has been implicated as a possible cause of brain damage in fetuses and newborns and may underlie white matter damage later in life. Rats at postnatal day (P) 0, P8 and P20 and opossums (Monodelphis domestica) at P15, P20, P35, P50 and P60 and adults of both species were(More)
Paralysis of the diaphragm is a severe consequence of cervical spinal cord injury. This condition can be experimentally modeled by lateralized, high cervical lesions that interrupt descending inspiratory drive to the corresponding phrenic nucleus. Although partial recovery of ipsilateral diaphragm function occurs over time, recent findings show persisting(More)
Although monosynaptic bulbospinal projections to phrenic motoneurons have been extensively described, little is known about the organization of phrenic premotor neurons in the adult rat spinal cord. Because interneurons may play an important role in normal breathing and recovery following spinal cord injury, the present study has used anterograde and(More)
Immature spinal cord, unlike adult, has an ability to repair itself following injury. Evidence for regeneration, structural repair and development of substantially normal locomotor behaviour comes from studies of marsupials due to their immaturity at birth. We have compared morphological, cellular and molecular changes in spinal cords transected at(More)
These studies define the time table and origin of supraspinal axons regenerating across a complete spinal transection in postnatal Monodelphis domestica. After lumbar (L1) spinal cord injection of fluorophore-dextran amine conjugate on postnatal (P) day 4, a consistent number of neurons could be labeled. The numbers of labeled neurons remained stable for(More)
The entry of therapeutic compounds into the brain and spinal cord is normally restricted by barrier mechanisms in cerebral blood vessels (blood-brain barrier) and choroid plexuses (blood-CSF barrier). In the injured brain, ruptured cerebral blood vessels circumvent these barrier mechanisms by allowing blood contents to escape directly into the brain(More)
The consequences of spinal cord injury (SCI) are often viewed as the result of white matter damage. However, injuries occurring at any spinal level, especially in cervical and lumbar enlargement regions, also entail segmental neuronal loss. Yet, the contributions of gray matter injury and plasticity to functional outcomes are poorly understood. The present(More)
Despite extensive gray matter loss following spinal cord injury (SCI), little attention has been given to neuronal replacement strategies and their effects on specific functional circuits in the injured spinal cord. In the present study, we assessed breathing behavior and phrenic nerve electrophysiological activity following transplantation of(More)
In this paper we review respiratory recovery following C2 spinal cord hemisection (C2HS) and introduce evidence for ipsilateral (IL) and contralateral (CL) phrenic motor neuron (PhrMN) synchrony post-C2HS. Rats have rapid, shallow breathing after C2HS but ventilation ( logical or (E)) is maintained. logical or (E) deficits occur during hypercapnic challenge(More)