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The ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila is a model organism for molecular and cellular biology. Like other ciliates, this species has separate germline and soma functions that are embodied by distinct nuclei within a single cell. The germline-like micronucleus (MIC) has its genome held in reserve for sexual reproduction. The soma-like macronucleus (MAC), which(More)
The gene (GTU1) encoding Tetrahymena thermophila gamma-tubulin was cloned and analyzed. GTU1 is a single-copy, essential gene encoding a conventional gamma-tubulin. HA-tagged GTU1p localizes to four microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs) in vegetative cells: basal bodies (BBs), macronuclear envelopes, micronuclear envelopes, and contractile vacuole pores.(More)
During development of the somatic macronucleus from the germline micronucleus in ciliates, chromosome rearrangements occur in which specific regions of DNA are eliminated and flanking regions are healed, either by religation or construction of telomeres. We identified a gene, TWI1, in Tetrahymena thermophila that is homologous to piwi and is required for(More)
Genetically programmed DNA rearrangements can regulate mRNA expression at an individual locus or, for some organisms, on a genome-wide scale. Ciliates rely on a remarkable process of whole-genome remodeling by DNA elimination to differentiate an expressed macronucleus (MAC) from a copy of the germline micronucleus (MIC) in each cycle of sexual reproduction.(More)
In Tetrahymena, at least 17 distinct microtubule structures are assembled from a single primary sequence type of alpha- and beta-tubulin heterodimer, precluding distinctions among microtubular systems based on tubulin primary sequence isotypes. Tetrahymena tubulins also are modified by several types of posttranslational reactions including acetylation of(More)
Deciliated starved Tetrahymena recover motility with kinetics similar to those of growing cells and, like growing cells, require RNA and protein synthesis for regeneration. Comparisons of polysome profiles and electrophoretic analyses of newly synthesized proteins indicate, however, that the basal level of protein synthesis in starved cells is markedly(More)
Intraflagellar transport (IFT) particles are multiprotein complexes that move bidirectionally along the cilium/flagellum. The Tetrahymena IFT172 gene encodes a protein with an N-terminal WD domain (WDD) and a C-terminal repeat domain (RPD). Epitope-tagged Ift172p localized to the basal body and in cilia along the axoneme, and IFT172 knockout cells lost(More)
Intraflagellar transport (IFT) moves multiple protein particles composed of two biochemically distinct complexes, IFT-A and IFT-B, bi-directionally within cilia and is essential for cilia assembly and maintenance. We identified an ORF from the Tetrahymena macronuclear genome sequence, encoding IFT122A, an ortholog of an IFT-A complex protein. Tetrahymena(More)
Phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10 occurs during mitosis in diverse eukaryotes and correlates closely with mitotic and meiotic chromosome condensation. To better understand the function of H3 phosphorylation in vivo, we created strains of Tetrahymena in which a mutant H3 gene (S10A) was the only gene encoding the major H3 protein. Although both(More)
We have (separately) disrupted all of the expressed macronuclear copies of the HHO gene encoding macronuclear histone H1 and of the micronuclear linker histone (MLH) gene encoding the protein MicLH in Tetrahymena thermophila. These disruptions are shown to eliminate completely the expression of each protein. Strains without either linker histone grow at(More)