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Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic factor with a key role in several pathological processes, including tumour vascularization. Our preliminary observations indicated higher VEGF concentrations in serum samples than in matched plasma samples. We have now demonstrated that this difference is due to the presence of VEGF within(More)
The assessment of angiogenesis in breast cancer is of importance as a key indicator of survival and response to therapy. Circulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) measurements may provide a less subjective analysis than microvessel density (MVD) or immunohistochem-ical analysis of VEGF expression; however, most studies have used serum, which is(More)
BACKGROUND Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a harmful traditional practice deeply rooted in 28 Sub-Saharan African countries. Its prevalence in The Gambia is 76.3%. The objective of this study was to gain precise information on the long-term health consequences of FGM/C in The Gambia as well as on its impact on delivery and on the health of the(More)
The circulating cytokine concentrations following administration of subcutaneous recombinant interleukin 2 (IL-2) in combination with interferon alpha and 5-fluorouracil used to treat advanced renal cancer were studied. One patient was anephric and on dialysis, and seven had normal biochemical renal function, although five had undergone single nephrectomy.(More)
The concentrations of the soluble adhesion molecules E-cadherin, E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were investigated in 48 patients with colorectal cancer before treatment, and their relation to clinical, histological and routine laboratory parameters was examined. Data were collected on(More)
This paper presents a new multi-depot combined vehicle and crew scheduling algorithm, and uses it, in conjunction with a heuristic vehicle routing algorithm, to solve the intra-city mail distribution problem faced by Australia Post. First we describe the Australia Post mail distribution problem and outline the heuristic vehicle routing algorithm used to(More)
The concentrations of the soluble adhesion molecules E-cadherin, E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were investigated in 45 patients with gastric cancer before treatment and their correlation with clinical, histological and routine laboratory parameters was examined. Data were collected on(More)
A study of the epithelial mucin marker MCA was made in 233 patients with breast cancer. Only 6% of 72 patients with Stage I-III disease had a raised MCA (greater than 15 U ml-1) when assessed following surgical treatment of the primary tumour. Raised levels of MCA occurred in one out of 20 (10%) patients with stable local recurrence, and six out of ten(More)
Serum levels of mucin-like carcinoma associated antigen (MCA) were measured in 80 healthy women, 109 patients with breast cancer at presentation and in samples taken from 45 patients with active metastatic breast cancer. The MCA levels in controls had an upper limit of normal of 19.6 U ml-1 in post-menopausal and 16.4 U ml-1 in premenopausal women. The(More)