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Plastics debris is accumulating in the environment and is fragmenting into smaller pieces; as it does, the potential for ingestion by animals increases. The consequences of macroplastic debris for wildlife are well documented, however the impacts of microplastic (< 1 mm) are poorly understood. The mussel, Mytilus edulis, was used to investigate ingestion,(More)
Plastic debris <1 mm (defined here as microplastic) is accumulating in marine habitats. Ingestion of microplastic provides a potential pathway for the transfer of pollutants, monomers, and plastic-additives to organisms with uncertain consequences for their health. Here, we show that microplastic contaminates the shorelines at 18 sites worldwide(More)
The human population generates vast quantities of waste material. Macro (>1 mm) and microscopic (<1 mm) fragments of plastic debris represent a substantial contamination problem. Here, we test hypotheses about the influence of wind and depositional regime on spatial patterns of micro- and macro-plastic debris within the Tamar Estuary, UK. Debris was(More)
Understanding how biomarkers relate to each other on exposure to particular contaminants in different species is key to their widespread application in environmental management. However, few studies have systematically used multiple biomarkers in more than a single species to determine the variability of sublethal effects of a particular contaminant. In(More)
Worldwide responses to urbanization, expanding populations and climatic change mean biodiverse habitats are replaced with expensive, but necessary infrastructure. Coastal cities support vast expanses of buildings and roads along the coast or on "reclaimed" land, leading to "armouring" of shorelines with walls, revetments and offshore structures to reduce(More)
The metrial gland and its population of bone marrow-derived, large, granulated, lymphocyte-like cells, termed granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells, are consistent but poorly understood, decidua-associated features of pregnancy in the mouse and other species. Decidua, a complex maternal tissue, is thought to be a source of cytokines important for placental(More)
Transgenic mice have provided invaluable information about gene function and regulation. However, because of marked differences between rodents and primates, some areas of human biology such as early embryonic development, aging, and maternal-fetal interactions would be best studied in a nonhuman primate model. Here, we report that gene transfer into rhesus(More)
Inadequate products, waste management, and policy are struggling to prevent plastic waste from infiltrating ecosystems [1, 2]. Disintegration into smaller pieces means that the abundance of micrometer-sized plastic (microplastic) in habitats has increased [3] and outnumbers larger debris [2, 4]. When ingested by animals, plastic provides a feasible pathway(More)
To reduce the number of animals required for controlled studies of marmoset oocytes and early embryos, a superovulation protocol was developed for the common marmoset. Females were given up to 50 i.u./day recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)--(r-hFSH) for 6 days. Ovaries were visualized by a modified laparoscopic technique and follicular(More)