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It is well known that neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury leads to mental retardation and deficits in cognitive abilities such as learning and memory in human beings. The ameliorative effect of erythropoietin (Epo) on experimental hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in neonatal rats has been recently reported. However, the effect of Epo on cognitive abilities(More)
It is well known that diabetes mellitus may cause neuropsychiatric disorders such as anxiety disorders. Diabetes may also cause reduced IGF-1 (insulin like growth factor-1) levels in brain and blood. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between diabetes induced anxiety and IGF-1 levels in diabetic rats. The anxiety levels of(More)
In a previous study we demonstrated that acute footshock stress increased glutathione peroxidase activity in the prefrontal cortex and striatum of adult male rats. Adolescents may respond differently to stress as life stressors may be greater than at other ages. The present study examined the effects of the acute footshock stress on superoxide dismutase(More)
Regular treadmill running during adolescence improves learning and memory in rats. During adolescence, the baseline level of stress is thought to be greater than during other periods of life. We investigated the effects of voluntary and involuntary exercise on the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), brain-derived(More)
Melatonin has recently been suggested as an antioxidant that may protect neurons from oxidative stress. Acute ethanol administration produces both lipid peroxidation as an indicator of oxidative stress in the brain and impairs water-maze performance in spatial learning and memory tasks. The present study investigated the effect of melatonin against(More)
Increasing age decreases spatial learning and memory. Spatial learning is coordinated with different brain regions. Since the oxidative damage may play a role in the aging process, including the associated cognitive decline, age-related impairment in spatial learning and memory may be alleviated by antioxidant treatment. The present study examined the(More)
Anxiety and depression are common in diabetics. Diabetes also may cause reduced leptin levels in the blood. We investigated the relation between diabetes induced anxiety- and depression-like behavior, and leptin and leptin receptor expression levels in diabetic rats. The anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of rats were assessed 4 weeks after(More)
Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are used in the medical treatment of many disorders. Erythropoietin (EPO) is a hematopoietic cytokine that has anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidative, and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of the present study is to investigate the neuroprotective effects of EPO in the hippocampus, parietal cortex and prefrontal cortex, in brain(More)
Oxidative stress may play a major role in the aging process and associated cognitive decline. Therefore, antioxidant treatment may alleviate age-related impairment in spatial memory. Cognitive impairment could also involve the age-related morphological alterations of the hippocampal formation. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between(More)
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of methylprednisolone (Pn), which is a potent anti-inflammatory agent, and pheniramine maleate (Ph), which is an antihistaminic with some anti-inflammatory effects, on reperfusion injury in brain developing after ischemia of the left lower extremity of rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS(More)