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Fragile X syndrome is the most prevalent cause of mental retardation. It is usually caused by the transcriptional inactivation of the FMR-1 gene. Although the cognitive defect is the most recognized symptom of fragile X syndrome, patients also show behavioral problems such as hyperarousal, hyperactivity, autism, aggression, anxiety and increased sensitivity(More)
Brain serotonin (5-HT) has been implicated in a number of physiological processes and pathological conditions. These effects are mediated by at least 14 different 5-HT receptors. We have inactivated the gene encoding the 5-HT1A receptor in mice and found that receptor-deficient animals have an increased tendency to avoid a novel and fearful environment and(More)
Epidemiological data and genetic studies indicate that certain forms of human epilepsy are inherited. Based on the similarity between the human and mouse genomes, mouse models of epilepsy could facilitate the discovery of genes associated with epilepsy syndromes. Here, we report an insertional murine mutation that inactivates a novel gene and results in(More)
An involvement of serotonin (5-HT) 1A receptors in the etiology of psychiatric disorders has been suggested. Hypo-responsiveness of the 5-HT1A receptor is linked to anxiety and constitutive deletion of the 5-HT1A receptor produces anxiety-like behaviors in the mouse. Evidence that 5-HT1A receptor inactivation increases the therapeutic effects of(More)
Fragile X syndrome is a common form of inherited mental retardation caused by the absence of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). It has been hypothesized that FMRP is involved in the processing and/or translation of mRNAs. Human and mouse target-mRNAs, containing purine quartets, have previously been identified. By using cDNA-SELEX (systematic(More)
Anxiety is a common psychiatric illness often treated by benzodiazepines (BZs). BZs, such as Valium, bind to the alpha subunit of the pentameric GABA(A) receptor and increase inhibition in the CNS. There is considerable evidence for abnormal GABA(A) receptor function in anxiety, and a significant proportion of anxiety patients has a reduced sensitivity to(More)
Animals with one deleted jerky allele are more susceptible to chemically induced seizures than wild-type mice and display recurrent behavioral seizures. The phenotype of these hemizygotes is characterized by no apparent neurological symptoms other than recurrent seizures reminiscent of human idiopathic epilepsy. The jerky gene encodes a 60 kDa protein(More)
The hippocampus is a major limbic target of the brainstem serotonergic neurons that modulate fear, anxiety, and learning through postsynaptic serotonin(1A) receptors (5-HT(1A) receptors). Because chronic stress selectively down-regulates the 5-HT(1A) receptors in the hippocampus, we hypothesized that mice lacking these receptors may exhibit abnormalities(More)
MAOA and MAOB are key iso-enzymes that degrade biogenic and dietary amines. MAOA preferentially oxidizes serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE), whereas MAOB preferentially oxidizes beta-phenylethylamine (PEA). Both forms can oxidize dopamine (DA). A mutation in MAOA results in a clinical phenotype characterized by borderline(More)
Patterns of DNA methylation in complex genomes like those of mammalian cells have been viewed as indicators of different levels of genetic activities. It is as yet unknown how these complicated patterns are generated and maintained during cell replication. There is evidence from many different biological systems that the sequence-specific methylation of(More)