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Fragile X syndrome is the most prevalent cause of mental retardation. It is usually caused by the transcriptional inactivation of the FMR-1 gene. Although the cognitive defect is the most recognized symptom of fragile X syndrome, patients also show behavioral problems such as hyperarousal, hyperactivity, autism, aggression, anxiety and increased sensitivity(More)
Depression is a major health problem worldwide. Most prescribed anti-depressants, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) show limited efficacy and delayed onset of action, partly due to the activation of somatodendritic 5-HT(1A)-autoreceptors by the excess extracellular serotonin (5-HT) produced by SSRI in the raphe nuclei. Likewise, 5-HT(1A)(More)
Fragile X syndrome is a common form of inherited mental retardation caused by the absence of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). It has been hypothesized that FMRP is involved in the processing and/or translation of mRNAs. Human and mouse target-mRNAs, containing purine quartets, have previously been identified. By using cDNA-SELEX (systematic(More)
An involvement of serotonin (5-HT) 1A receptors in the etiology of psychiatric disorders has been suggested. Hypo-responsiveness of the 5-HT1A receptor is linked to anxiety and constitutive deletion of the 5-HT1A receptor produces anxiety-like behaviors in the mouse. Evidence that 5-HT1A receptor inactivation increases the therapeutic effects of(More)
Brain serotonin (5-HT) has been implicated in a number of physiological processes and pathological conditions. These effects are mediated by at least 14 different 5-HT receptors. We have inactivated the gene encoding the 5-HT1A receptor in mice and found that receptor-deficient animals have an increased tendency to avoid a novel and fearful environment and(More)
Anxiety is a common psychiatric illness often treated by benzodiazepines (BZs). BZs, such as Valium, bind to the alpha subunit of the pentameric GABA(A) receptor and increase inhibition in the CNS. There is considerable evidence for abnormal GABA(A) receptor function in anxiety, and a significant proportion of anxiety patients has a reduced sensitivity to(More)
Patterns of DNA methylation in complex genomes like those of mammalian cells have been viewed as indicators of different levels of genetic activities. It is as yet unknown how these complicated patterns are generated and maintained during cell replication. There is evidence from many different biological systems that the sequence-specific methylation of(More)
Epidemiological data and genetic studies indicate that certain forms of human epilepsy are inherited. Based on the similarity between the human and mouse genomes, mouse models of epilepsy could facilitate the discovery of genes associated with epilepsy syndromes. Here, we report an insertional murine mutation that inactivates a novel gene and results in(More)
The 5' flanking region of the 5-HT2 receptor gene has been cloned, sequenced and its transcriptional regulatory functions analyzed. The promoter lacks an identifiable TATA motif, and utilizes at least 11 clustered start sites. Promoter function was analyzed by transient assays in rat C6 glioma cells, which were shown to express the endogenous 5-HT2 receptor(More)
Department of Neurochemistry and Neuropharmacology, IIBB CSIC IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain; Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Madrid, Spain; Department of Physiological Sciences II, School of Medicine, Bellvitge, Barcelona University,(More)