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Different kinds of plant-animal interactions are ordinarily studied in isolation, yet considering the combined fitness effects of mutualistic and antagonistic interactions is essential to understanding plant character evolution. Functional, structural, or phylogenetic associations between attractive and defensive traits may be nonadaptive or result from(More)
Autonomous self-pollination may be considered as a mechanism enhancing plant reproductive success when plant access to pollen sources may limit seed production. We have studied the relationship between geographical patterns of variation in pollinator service to Helleborus foetidus and self-pollination ability in three widely spaced regions in the Iberian(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS It is well known that resource allocation to male and female functions can be highly variable in hermaphroditic plants. The purpose of this study was to investigate variations in sexual investment at different levels (flower, plant and population) in Polygonatum odoratum, a plant with sequentially opening flowers. METHODS Pollen and(More)
We examine the hierarchical geographic structure of the interaction between a plant, Helleborus foetidus, and its floral herbivores and pollinators (interactors). Six populations from three distant regions of the Iberian Peninsula were used to examine intra- and inter-regional variation in plant traits, interactors and plant fecundity, and to compare,(More)
In hermaphrodite plants, variations in structural gender (defined as the ratio between male and female gametes) may occur at different levels (among flowers, plants, and populations). In this study, we investigated variation in four traits influencing structural gender (number of carpels, ovules per carpel, stamens, and pollen grains per stamen) within and(More)
We investigated patterns of fruit and seed production on inflorescences of a population of Pancratium maritimum in northwest Spain over a 2-yr period. Initial findings showed that the earliest opening flowers on an inflorescence are more likely to set fruit and produce more seeds than later opening flowers and that this pattern is maintained throughout the(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Intra-specific variation in nectar chemistry under natural conditions has been only rarely explored, yet it is an essential aspect of our understanding of how pollinator-mediated selection might act on nectar traits. This paper examines intra-specific variation in nectar sugar composition in field and glasshouse plants of the(More)
Through their effects on physicochemical features of floral nectar, nectar-dwelling yeasts can alter pollinator behavior, but the effect of such changes on pollination success and plant reproduction is unknown. We present results of experiments testing the effects of nectar yeasts on foraging patterns of captive and free-ranging bumble bees, and also on(More)
Despite the importance of assessing the stability of epigenetic variation in non-model organisms living in real-world scenarios, no studies have been conducted on the transgenerational persistence of epigenetic structure in wild plant populations. This gap in knowledge is hindering progress in the interpretation of natural epigenetic variation. By applying(More)
Erythronium dens-canis is a geophyte which produces a single flower each season. The fruits produce small seeds with relatively large elaiosomes. We performed experiments to investigate primary and secondary seed dispersal mechanisms of this species in different habitats in the western part of the Cantabrian Range in northwest Spain. Sticky traps were used(More)