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Models based on ordinary differential equations (ODE) are widespread tools for describing dynamical systems. In biomedical sciences, data from each subject can be sparse making difficult to precisely estimate individual parameters by standard non-linear regression but information can often be gained from between-subjects variability. This makes natural the(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of acute sleep deprivation and chronic sleep restriction on vigilance, performance, and self-perception of sleepiness. DESIGN Habitual night followed by 1 night of total sleep loss (acute sleep deprivation) or 5 consecutive nights of 4 hr of sleep (chronic sleep restriction) and recovery night. PARTICIPANTS(More)
For most patients, the HIV viral load can be made undetectable by highly active antiretroviral treatments highly active antiretroviral therapy: the virus, however, cannot be eradicated. Thus, the major problem is to try to reduce the side effects of the treatment that patients have to take during their life time. We tackle the problem of monitoring the(More)
Mechanistic models, based on ordinary differential equation systems, can exhibit very good predictive abilities that will be useful to build treatment monitoring strategies. In this review, we present the potential and the limitations of such models for guiding treatment (monitoring and optimizing) in HIV-infected patients. In the context of antiretroviral(More)
Routine monitoring of HIV-1 RNA or viral load (VL) in patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is important, but there are multiple impediments to VL testing in resource-constrained settings. An accurate point-of-care (POC) HIV-1 VL test could alleviate many of these challenges. We compared the performance of the Cepheid Xpert HIV-1 VL assay against the(More)
Exogenous Interleukin-7 (IL-7), in supplement to antiretroviral therapy, leads to a substantial increase of all CD4+ T cell subsets in HIV-1 infected patients. However, the quantitative contribution of the several potential mechanisms of action of IL-7 is unknown. We have performed a mathematical analysis of repeated measurements of total and naive CD4+ T(More)
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has proved efficient in increasing CD4 counts in many randomized clinical trials. Because randomized trials have some limitations (e.g., short duration, highly selected subjects), it is interesting to assess the effect of treatments using observational studies. This is challenging because treatment is started(More)