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As computer networks increase in size, become more heterogeneous and span greater geographic distances, applications must be designed to cope with the very large scale, poor reliability, and often, with the extreme dynamism of the underlying network. <i>Aggregation</i> is a key functional building block for such applications: it refers to a set of functions(More)
Gossip-based communication protocols are appealing in large-scale distributed applications such as information dissemination, aggregation, and overlay topology management. This paper factors out a fundamental mechanism at the heart of all these protocols: the <i>peer-sampling</i> service. In short, this service provides every node with peers to gossip with.(More)
In recent years, the gossip-based communication model in large-scale distributed systems has become a general paradigm with important applications which include information dissemination, aggrega-tion, overlay topology management and synchronization. At the heart of all of these protocols lies a fundamental distributed abstraction: the peer sampling(More)
Overlay topology plays an important role in P2P systems. Topology serves as a basis for achieving functions such as routing, searching and information dissemination, and it has a major impact on their efficiency , cost and robustness. Furthermore, the solution to problems such as sorting and clustering of nodes can also be interpreted as a topology. In this(More)
Aggregation—that is, the computation of global properties like average or maximal load, or the number of nodes— is an important basic functionality in fully distributed environments. In many cases—which include protocols responsible for self-organization in large-scale systems and col-laborative environments—it is useful if all nodes know the value of some(More)
Peer-to-peer (P2P) technology has undergone rapid growth, producing new protocols and applications, many of which enjoy considerable commercial success and academic interest. Yet, P2P applications are often based on complex protocols, whose behavior is not completely understood. We believe that in order to enable an even more widespread adoption of P2P(More)
Monitoring large computer networks often involves aggregation of various sorts of data that are distributed across network components. Finding extreme values, counting discrete observations or computing an average or a sum of some parameter values are typical examples of such " background " activities that provide input to monitoring systems. Another aspect(More)
Recent developments in information technology have brought about important changes in distributed computing. New environments such as massively large-scale, wide-area computer networks and mobile ad hoc networks have emerged. Common characteristics of these environments include extreme dynamicity, unreliability, and large scale. Traditional approaches to(More)