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Trastuzumab is a recombinant antibody drug that is widely used for the treatment of breast cancer. Despite encouraging clinical results, some cancers are primarily resistant to trastuzumab, and a majority of those initially responding become resistant during prolonged treatment. The mechanisms of trastuzumab resistance have not been fully understood. We(More)
In recent years, an exponentially growing number of studies have focused on identifying cancer stem cells (CSC) in human malignancies. The rare CSCs could be crucial in controlling and curing cancer: through asymmetric division CSCs supposedly drive tumor growth and evade therapy with the help of traits shared with normal stem cells such as quiescence,(More)
BACKGROUND A novel antibody-drug conjugate (trastuzumab-DM1, T-DM1) is currently in clinical trials for patients with trastuzumab resistant HER2-positive breast cancer. Since no clinical data is available from gastric cancer, we studied T-DM1 on HER2-positive human gastric cancer cells and xenograft tumors. METHODS Effects of T-DM1 were studied in four(More)
Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is an antibody-drug conjugate that is effective and generally well tolerated when administered as a single agent to treat advanced breast cancer. Efficacy has now been demonstrated in randomized trials as first line, second line, and later than the second line treatment of advanced breast cancer. T-DM1 is currently being(More)
INTRODUCTION Trastuzumab is widely used for the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer. Despite encouraging clinical results, a significant fraction of patients are, or become, refractory to the drug. To overcome this, trastuzumab-DM1 (T-DM1), a newer, more potent drug has been introduced. We tested the efficacy and mechanisms of action of T-DM1 in nine(More)
Trastuzumab plays an important role in breast cancer therapy. However, a significant fraction of patients do not respond to therapy or they tend to develop resistance shortly after beginning therapy. Although some resistance mechanisms have been described, it is unclear whether these mechanisms can coexist. In this study, we analyzed the resistance(More)
Although trastuzumab, a recombinant humanised anti-ErbB2 antibody, is widely used in the treatment of breast cancer, neither its mechanism of action, nor the factors leading to resistance are fully understood. We have previously shown that antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity is pivotal in the in vivo effect of trastuzumab against JIMT-1, a cell line(More)
The ErbB family is well known for its significance in oncogenesis. As bad prognostic markers, overexpressed or mutated ErbB1 and ErbB2 have an important role in the molecular diagnosis of various cancers, but as membrane proteins, expressed often selectively in tumor tissues, they can be targeted with kinase inhibitors or therapeutic antibodies. In addition(More)
Activation of the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases is involved in a range of human cancers. Transmembrane signaling mediated by ErbB proteins is stimulated by peptide growth factors and is blocked by monoclonal antibodies such as trastuzumab and pertuzumab. ErbB receptors exert their function in conjunction with non-ErbB proteins, e.g. CD44. Here we(More)
We have recently shown that despite of the fact that the ErbB2-positive JIMT-1 human breast cancer cells intrinsically resistant to trastuzumab in vitro, trastuzumab inhibited the outgrowth of early phase JIMT-1 xenografts in SCID mice via antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Here we show that trastuzumab significantly reduces the number of(More)